Important limitations of this study are that TCD examinations were performed only depending on the clinical condition of the patient, and without previous measurements of the thickness of the temporal bone to distinguish between patients with ideal or nonideal TWs, a factor related to the absorption and/or scattering of the ultrasound energy (Aaslid et al. 1982). Also, some conditions such as renal failure or diabetes, that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical are associated
with suboptimal windows were not analyzed, as the effect of transducers with frequencies of less than 2 MHz, which could increase the detection of arterial signals in inadequate temporal bone windows, was not explored. Additionally, simply because a single operator performed all of the examinations does not necessarily imply that the results of this study are not reproducible. Finally, we do not know to what extent echo-contrasting agents would have improved the results in our population and whether Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical our results could be applied to transcranial color-coded duplex sonography, a neurosonographic examination that is becoming progressively more popular, based on the fact that reliably
identifies blood flow in the intracranial Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical arteries by allowing direct visualization of the vessels insonated; and it offers the opportunity for angle corrections resulting in more accurate measurement of flow velocities. Furthermore, it enables the detection of midline Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical shifts in ischemic strokes and detection of intracerebral hemorrhages (Nedelmann et al. 2009). Conclusion The Hispanic–Mestizo population has a TW detection rate similar to those of European populations, and the rate of optimal insonation is mainly
affected by patient characteristics, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical such as age and sex. Acknowledgments Arnold Hoppe has been paid honoraria and received travel grants as part of research projects by AstraZeneca and Servier. Conflicts of Interest Alejandro M. Brunser this website reports no conflicts of interest. Claudio Silva reports no conflicts of interest. Daniel Cárcamo reports no conflicts of interest. Paula Muñoz reports no conflicts of interest. Arnold Hoppe has been paid honoraria and Bay 11-7085 received travel grants as part of research projects by Astra Zeneca and Servier. Veronica V. Olavarría reports no conflicts of interest. Violeta Díaz reports no conflicts of interest. Juan Abarca reports no conflicts of interest.
Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a noninvasive therapeutic device that applies pulsed, alternating microcurrent (<1000 μA) transcutaneously to the head via electrodes placed on the earlobes, mastoid processes, zygomatic arches, or the maxillo-occipital junction. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted approval in 1979 for CES for the treatment of insomnia, depression, and anxiety, and it is commercially available for personal use.