An unsettling finding in the Monaco study is that only one of the nine patients had been previously diagnosed with OCD, indicating that OCD is poorly recognized in an outpatient epilepsy patient population. One reason may well be the relative lack of investigators
trained in psychiatry in an outpatient epilepsy clinic setting. Regarding mechanisms, the authors note that the amygdala is involved in OCD, and has major connections with the striatum. Such affective and motivational components facilitate Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the conduction of automated often ritualistic behavior in response to danger. The reciprocal links to the amygdala, ventral striatum, and stria terminalis Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical may serve the anxiety-modulating
effects of rituals and repetitive behaviors.33 Ertekin and colleagues built on the prior investigations and constructed a study to evaluate the associations of TLE arising from unilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), and IGE with psychiatric comorbidities including OCD10 They compared Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 29 TLE patients with 27 IGE patients from an epilepsy clinic population, and with 30 control subjects, they employed investigators experienced in epilepsy and psychiatry. This team evaluated the three groups, and supplemented their evaluations with MRI imaging and EEG. Using a Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-I) and Y-BOCS Symptom Checklist that includes some 50 types of obsessive and compulsive
characteristics, they were able to rate severity and type of symptom, including patients with subsyndromal characteristics of OCD. The authors found that about 10% of TLE patients had OCD, 24% had subsyndromal OCD, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical which was higher than in the matched IGE group (3.7% and 7.4% – not statistically significant). Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The commonest comorbidity with OCD was depression,10 and there was a left-sided predominance in this association with TLE. Overall, psychiatric comorbidity in the epilepsy population probably arises from many sources. Principal Adenylyl cyclase among them probably is a combination of social and neurobiological interplay. Lending support to the effect of the chronicity of an enduring condition, is the study by Swinkels and colleagues who noted that both predisposition and brain dysfunction played a part.8 They speculated that anatomical factors, however, were more important than the chronicity of the disease. Confirming observations by Monaco and colleagues, Ertekin and colleagues found that depression was MK-0457 ic50 highly associated with OCD in TLE, also supporting conclusions by Isaacs and colleagues who used an Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (OCI), but not a SCID-IP or Y-BOCS to delineate an OCD diagnosis.3,10,32 Findings by Ertekin and colleagues also endorse the Isaacs findings.