Multiple alignment and phylogenetic studies also confirmed both sequences were separately grouped. It is suggested that both penaeidin (Fi-penaeidin and Fein-Penaeidin) from F. indicus may be different isoforms of penaeidin. In L. vannamei more number of isoforms of penaeidin 4c, 4a, 2b, 3i, 3h, 3g, 3f, 3a, 3d, 3a, 3a.3, 3a.2, 3a.1, 3j, Selleck Buparlisib PEN4-3, PEN3-11, PEN2-4, PEN3-1, PEN4-1, PEN2-1, 3c, 3b, 2 and 3a were reported  and . The penaeidin
sequence isoforms involved in the invertebrate immune system may be clearly known when the functional aspects of each sequence will be thoroughly studied. The proline-rich domain, COOH-terminal domain of penaeidins is characterized by the presence of six cysteine residues engaged in the formation of three intramolecular disulfide bridges, which are conserved in the Fein-Penaeidin
sequence of F. indicus. To date, this unique chimeric structure is characteristic of the penaeidin family  and . Secondary structure analysis using GOR4 revealed that coils were dominated among secondary structure elements followed by alpha helices. Based on the Ramachandron Plot value and overall quality factors, the best 3D structure generated was selected for structure validation. It is evident from Fig. 4a that the best model created using the template 1UEO employing the ROBETTA full-chain protein structure prediction server has more than 91.5% of its amino acid residues in the core region, 8.5% in the allowed region and only 0.5% in the disallowed region as compared to models created using the SWISSMODEL server having selleck smaller percentage of amino acid residues
in the allowed region. This indicates that the models created using the ROBETTA server are better in terms of geometrical and stereo chemical properties. The RMS Z-score of the modeled protein was greater than 0.2, showing that the modeled protein has a refined structure. The overall quality factor as shown by the errat option of the SAVS metaserver was 83.871, suggesting high model quality. The predicted structures conformed well to the stereochemistry indicating reasonably good quality. In previous results the predicted three-dimensional structure of penaeidin-5 was analyzed and showed the full length peptide using MODELER and a CSαβ-type α-helix Idelalisib solubility dmso structure in the carboxy terminal region . Quantitative real-time PCR was used to demonstrate that the penaeidin genes are expressed at dramatically different levels in the tissues of F. indicus. An abundance of penaeidin expression was present in the haemocytes and weakly detected in other tissues such as the gills, heart and intestine. This differential pattern of expression would suggest that transcription of penaeidin genes is controlled by distinct regulatory elements. In the immune challenged experiments both peptidoglycan and V.