Of these drug delivery systems, liposome-based agents will have t

Of these drug delivery systems, liposome-based agents will have the greatest impact in neurology. Current liposomal drugs evolve from a number of design strategies for the improvement in biodistribution over free drugs. Reticuloendothelial system-targeted formulations significantly reduce systemic exposure to high peak levels of free drug but do not facilitate targeting to brain. Passive or physiologic targeting of drugs to brain regions is achievable Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical using long-circulating liposomes, including pure lipid systems as well as surface-modified

formulations designed to resist recognition and uptake by reticuloendothelial system cells. The neurodegeneration of the Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease has not been beneficially treated by classical oral therapy. Levodopa for Parkinson’s disease and rivastigmine for Alzheimer’s disease remain the gold standard for the therapy. The design and development Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of an alternative drug based on new technologies will have a key role in the systemic application of new drugs, such as, growth factors, peptides or hormones. Nowadays is impossible to treat correctly many diseases mainly for the localization of damaged tissue Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or the complexity of tissue this website affected. The complexity of the disease and, many times, the localization of the tissue damage, difficult the possible treatment, for example,

the brain is isolated by the BBB. It is well demonstrated that the application of neurotrophic factors is able to modulate neuronal survival and synaptic connectivity, and it

is a promising therapeutic approach for these neurodegenerative diseases. Although, it is very difficult to ensure long-term administration into the brain, liposome technology Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical allows us to facilitate transport across the BBB. Liposomes have been used clinically as delivery systems for therapeutic drug delivery of chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, and antifungals. This is because liposomal preparations have been shown to increase the margin of safety of many drugs and also their efficacy. Among all the applications Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of liposomal technology, the development of a suitable liposomal carrier to encapsulate neuroactive Parvulin compounds is very promising. These liposomes are stable enough to be carried to the brain across the BBB, with the appropriate surface characteristics for an effective targeting and for an active membrane transport. Improvements and adjustments to the liposomal formulation are constantly being explored through the addition of different lipids and targeting molecules. For example, in liposomes lacking cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein can cause disintegration of the liposome, or in liposomes which do contain too much cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein can also cause leakage of contents. The development of novel therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative and neurological diseases represents one of the biggest unmet medical needs today.

In vivo models are necessary to investigate their potential to al

In vivo models are necessary to investigate their potential to alter the response to clinically established and novel anticancer substrates as well as to therapeutically applied hormones. Expanding our understanding of the different expression patterns of OATPs in tumors will finally aid oncologists when prescribing anticancer drugs known to be transported by OATPs. Acknowledgment This work is supported by the “Medical-Scientific Fund of the Mayor of the City of Vienna” (P10004 to VBA). Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Abbreviations

Bamet-R2: cis-Diamminechloro-cholylglycinate-platinum(II) Bamet-UD2: cis-Diammine-bisursodeoxy- cholate-platinum(II) C/T: Cancer/testis antigen DHT: Dihydrotestosterone HNF: Hepatocyte nuclear factor FXR: Farnesoid-X-receptor LH: Gonadotropic luteinizing hormone LHR: Hypothalamic luteinizing hormone-releasing factor OATP: Organic-anion transporting polypeptide SLCO: Solute carrier for organic anions, OATP protein PG: Prostaglandin PXR: Pregnane-X-receptor SN-38: Active metabolite of irinotecan T: Testosterone A: Androgen receptor (AR).
Osteosarcoma has one of the worst Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical prognosis among all malignant tumors. Before 1970, the 5-year survival rate of the treated patients was only about 20% [1, 2]. The treatment of osteosarcoma

currently involves surgical resection in combination with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Despite advances in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy and in limb-salvage surgery, the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical disease-free survival rate still remains poor for patients with metastatic, recurrent, or unresectable osteosarcoma. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Thus, novel selective therapeutic approaches against osteosarcoma are highly required. Previously, we found that the novel lectin Eucheuma serra agglutinin (ESA),

which was successfully isolated by Kawakubo et al. [3] from the marine red alga Eucheuma serra, specifically binds to carcinoma cell lines of human adenocarcinoma, human cervical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical squamous cell carcinoma, and marine adenocarcinoma but not to normal human fibroblasts or lymphocytes [4]. We also revealed, that the specific binding of ESA to carcinoma cells is based on specific interactions between ESA and the unique sugar chains of high mannose type on the surface of the carcinoma cells Rutecarpine [4]. In a more recent study, Hori et al. [5] investigated the specific interactions between ESA and various unique sugar chains of high mannose type in detail. Furthermore, we successfully elaborated the basis for a novel type of drug delivery system (DDS) for cancer therapy using ESA (i) as targeting ligand to carcinoma tumors and (ii) as inducer of apoptosis due to specific ESA binding to carcinoma cells [6]. Recently, the general potential of certain types of sugar binding proteins (lectins) as promising, buy PFT�� alternative antitumor drugs has been emphasized [7]. The antitumor activity of these lectins might be related directly to specific intermolecular interactions between the lectins and the sugar chains on the tumor cell surface [8].

These findings suggest that maternal LG in the neonate increases

These findings suggest that maternal LG in the neonate increases NGFIA expression in the hippocampus and NGFIA binding to the exon 17 promoter. NGFIA might then increase GR expression in hippocampal neurons, and these findings might then provide a mechanism for the effect of maternal care over the first week of life. However, while there are striking differences in NGFIA

expression in the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical offspring of high- and low-LG mothers at day 6 of postnatal life, hippocampal NGFIA expression in adulthood is unaffected by maternal care: there is no difference in hippocampal NGFIA expression in the adult offspring of high- and low-LG dams. We are thus left with the defining question of early experience studies: how are the effects of early life events sustained into adulthood? Epigenetic programming of stress reponses Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical While we are all familiar

with linear models of DNA and protein-DNA interactions where protein-DNA interactions occur, it would seem, in the absence of any obstruction, such models ignore the fact that most of the DNA is tightly packaged into nucleosomes that involve a close http://www.selleckchem.com/products/mk-5108-vx-689.html relationship formed by DNA wrapped around a core of histone proteins (Figure 3).87 The actual formation of a nucleosome is 146 bp of DNA with a histone octamer core. The conformation or Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical structure of the histone-DNA configuration regulates gene expression.88 Figure 3. Nucleosome core particle: Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical ribbon traces for the 146-bp DNA phosphodiester backbones (brown and turquoise) and eight histone protein chains.87 The configuration is maintained, in part, through electrostatic bonds between the positively charged histones … The relation between DNA and histone is maintained, in part, by electrostatic bonds between positively charged histones and the negatively charged DNA. This chromatin structure commonly precludes transcription factor binding to DNA and underscores the importance of enzymes that modify histone-DNA interactions. Most modifications of the nucleosome occur on amino acid residues along the histone Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical tail that protrudes through the DNA, and is thus vulnerable to enzymatic modification (Figure 3). The relevant histone modifications include

acetylation, phosphorylation, ribosylation, and methylation. Each of these modifications can alter the interaction between the histones and the DNA, and thus alter gene expression. Our focus is on histone acetylation, which is closely associated with gene expression. One class of such proteins, histone acetyltransferase Ketanserin (HAT),89 catalyze the acetylation of selected amino acids, on the protruding histone tails, most commonly histone 3 (H3). Positively charged amino acids such as lysine and arginine are the common targets for acetylation. Histone acetylation modifies the histone-DNA relation. Acetylation of the lysine (K) residue on H3 neutralizes the positively charged histone, opening the histone-DNA relationship, and facilitating transcription factor binding to DNA.

97–99 Latex allergy is an immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitiv

97–99 Latex allergy is an immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reaction, and its symptoms range from mild urticaria to lifethreatening events (bronchospasm, laryngeal edema, and systemic anaphylaxis) and death. Latex antigen exposure can occur by cutaneous, percutaneous, mucosal, and TGX-221 in vitro parenteral routes, and the antigen can be Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical transferred by direct contact and aerosol, but it is clear that direct mucosal and parenteral exposure poses the greatest

risk of anaphylaxis.100 It has been suggested that the most important factor in latex sensitization is the degree of exposure.101–102 The number of surgical procedures and exposure episodes were the dominant factors in the development of latex allergy among children with spinal dysraphism, particularly as neonates and infants.98,103 Conversely, there seemed to be no increased risk of latex allergy associated with age or sex.104 Children with other diseases requiring multiple surgical exposures

with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical latex materials seem less prone to sensitization Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical than children with spinal dysraphism,105–107 and it has been suggested that there is a genetic association between spinal dysraphism and latex sensitivity.106,108 Therefore, it is our belief that all children with spinal dysraphism, especially those undergoing multiple exposures to latex, should avoid subsequent contact to latex whether in the home, office, or hospital environment. The operative risk of severe reactions is not as high in those patients without a history of latex sensitivity. Patients with a history of latex reactions can be safely treated with avoidance of equipment containing latex and premedication. A careful history of latex sensitivity should Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical be investigated in all patients with spinal dysraphism and, for those with latex allergy, appropriate

safeguards should be maintained during their hospitalization by avoiding latex-containing equipment, gloves, and catheters. Main Points Myelomeningocele is the most common dysraphic malformation and occurs in approximately 1 in 1200 to 1400 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical births. Most of those children (60%) are community ambulators, and 80% are socially continent. Occult spinal dysraphias are closed forms of spinal dysraphism in which the skin covers the neural tissue. In most cases a skin marker is present. Recognizing these cutaneous marks is important because they are usually Mephenoxalone associated with some form of dysraphism that can cause spinal cord injury and lead to progressive and sometimes sudden neurologic deterioration. Hydrocephalus occurs in approximately 85% of children with myelomeningocele; it does not directly affect the urologic course of the patient, other than when major intra-abdominal procedures are performed in the presence of an indwelling ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The spinal cord fixation commonly referred to as tethered cord may be a result of a variety of conditions.

Reaction time The participants must respond to a yellow spot appe

Reaction time The participants must respond to a yellow spot appearing in the screen by moving the hand away from the press pad button. Reaction time is divided between a single point and a five-choice reaction time phase. Reaction time primarily measures processing speed. Outcome measures were reaction time (the speed with which the subject releases the press pad button in response to the onset of a stimulus in either a single location or a five-choice location);

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and movement time (the time taken to touch the stimulus after the press pad button has been released in trials in which stimuli appear in a single location or a five-choice location). A lower score is better for both tests. Outcome measures were also accuracy scores (the total number of trials in which the response is recorded as correct for assessment trials in which the stimuli appear Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in a single or a five-choice

location), with a higher score being better. RO4929097 price Spatial working memory A number of colored boxes are shown on the touch screen. By touching the screen and using a process of elimination, the participant searches for Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical blue ‘tokens’ in the boxes. Participants are instructed not to return to a box where a token has been found previously. The number of boxes is gradually increased to a maximum number of eight. Spatial working memory primarily measures working memory. Outcome measures were between errors (defined as times the subject revisits a box in which a token has previously been found); within errors (defined as the number of errors made within a search, that is, the number of times a subject revisits a box already found to be empty during the same search); strategy (counting the number of times Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the subject begins a new search with a different box for six- and eight-box problems only); mean time to first Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical response (the mean time between the problem being presented to the subject and the subject first touching the screen to open a box); and

mean time to last response (the time between the problem being presented to the subject and the subject’s last screen touch to open a box to locate the final token for the problem). A lower score was better for all tests. Verbal recognition/recognition memory Participants are instructed to remember words, a total of 15, presented individually on the screen in front of them. also Participants are asked to recall as many of the presented words initially after the presentation. Twenty minutes after the initial recall phase, a second retrieval phase, a recognition test is conducted. Words are presented sequentially and participants are asked to press ‘yes’ or ‘no’, according to their recognition of the words as being presented previously or not. Verbal recognition/recognition memory primarily measures verbal learning and memory.

Thus, there is a need for feature selection To do that, a subset

Thus, there is a need for feature selection. To do that, a subset of the computed parameters can be selected manually. MaZda also offers the possibility of selecting the best 10 features automatically following two different selection criteria. One criterion maximizes the ratio of between-class to within-class variance, which resembles Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the Fisher coefficient.32,33 TTic second minimizes a combined measure of probability of classification error and correlation between features.33 The selected best 10 parameters can be used for texture classification.

Still, it is too difficult for a human operator to imagine and understand relationships between parameter http://www.selleckchem.com/products/nlg919.html vectors in the 10-dimensional data space. The B11 program of the MaZda package allows further Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical data processing to transform them to a new, lower-dimension data space. The data preprocessing employs linear transforms,

such as principal component, analysis (PCA)34 and linear discriminant analysis (LDA),32 as well as nonlinear operations leading to artificial neural network (ANN)-based nonlinear Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical discriminant analysis (NDA).35The B11 program displays both input and transformed data in a form of a scatter-plot graph. B11 allows also raw and transformed data vectors classification, and evaluation of the usefulness of texture features calculated using MaZda to classification of different texture classes present in image regions. For data classification, the nearest-neighbor classifier (k-NN)36 and ANN classifiers33,37,38 are implemented. Neural networks of the architecture defined during training can be tested using data sets composed of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical feature vectors calculated for images not used for the training. At the time of writing this paper, MaZda version 3.20 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was available. It implements procedures which allow4: Loading image files in most popular MRI scanner standards

(such as Siemens, Picker, Brucker, and others). MaZda can also load images in the form of Windows Bitmap files, DICOM files, and unformatted gray-scale image files (raw images) with pixel intensity encoded with 8 or 16 bits. Additionally, details of image acquisition protocol can be extracted from the image information header. Image normalization. .There are three options: default (analysis is made for original image); ±3σ (image mean m value and standard deviation a is computed, then analysis is performed for gray scale range between m-3σ and m+3σ); or 1 % -99 % (gray-scale see more range between 1% and 99% of cumulated image histogram is taken into consideration during analysis). Definition of ROIs. The analysis is performed within these regions. Up to 16 regions of any shape can be defined; they can be also edited, loaded, and saved as disk files. A histogram of defined ROIs may be visualized and stored. Image analysis, which is computation of texture feature values within defined ROIs.


Radiation exposure of CT is especially a concern in children, pregnant patients, and adults <50 year, but not negligible in individuals ≥ 50 year. Seventy-five percent of adult

patients with suspected appendicitis were < 50 year in the OPTIMA study and this proportion will be similar in this study proposal [12]. Until now MRI has almost exclusively been studied in children and pregnant patients [18]. Apart from the risk of cancer induction, CT is associated with the risk of renal insufficiency. Intravenous Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical contrast medium aggravates existing renal insufficiency and induces renal insufficiency in those with marginal renal function [19]. Approximately 60% of patients are not aware of their (imminent) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical renal insufficiency. The prevalence of (imminent) renal insufficiency increases with age [20]. For MRI no intravenous contrast medium is needed, obviating this risk. MRI can be beneficial for all adult patients irrespective of age. Studying MRI in all adult patients is therefore important. Based on the high intrinsic contrast resolution of MRI, one might Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical envision higher accuracy rates for MRI than CT, but this needs to be substantiated in this study. If so, MRI could further decrease the number of unnecessary appendectomies and the number of missed appendicitis cases. Conclusion The present work up in adult patients suspected for appendicitis has substantial shortcomings (e.g. proportion negative appendectomies).

The most accurate technique – CT – is associated with radiation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical burden and renal insufficiency. MRI is a potential valuable technique in all adult patients as it lacks the risks associated with CT and has an accuracy that is presumably comparable or possible higher than CT. Until now, the accuracy of MRI has not been studied in non pregnant adults except in studies limited in size [21]. Therefore more data are needed before further steps (e.g. RCT) can be made. This prospective multi-center study (Trial registration: NTR2148) will provide this information including accuracy, reproducibility, patient acceptance and imaging Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical costs. Scenario analyses will allow us to compare several strategies.

Prospective The CI-1033 supplier OPTIMAP study inclusion started in March 2010, results are expected in 2011. Competing only interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions ML/WL/AR/PB/MB/JS. 1) have made substantial contributions to conception and design 2) have been involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content 3) have given final approval of the version to be published. Each author has participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Pre-publication history The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here: http://www.biomedcentral.

Disease-free and overall survival at 5 years ranged from 28% to 3

Disease-free and overall survival at 5 years ranged from 28% to 38%, and from 54% to 58%, respectively, across the treatment arms.31 It is also important to note that, in the setting T3 stage laryngeal tumors, a significant percentage of patients will require adjuvant radiation, and in certain cases adjuvant chemotherapy. In these patients, the benefit of TLM remains unclear since their organ is not spared radiation. There

are currently no data to suggest that TLM followed by radiation provides Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical superior oncologic outcomes to definitive EBRT alone. Whether TLM can replace open laryngectomy for large T3 or T4 tumors remains to be seen and is likely to be a function of how easily TLM skills can be conferred to trainees. Vilaseca Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and colleagues evaluated outcome data from 587 patients treated by five surgeons between 1998 and 2012.32 Their data indicate that more experienced surgeons required fewer interventions to achieve oncologic cure and performed fewer selleck chemicals llc salvage laryngectomies following TLM. The rate of complications as well as positive margins did not differ between the surgeons. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Subset analysis of locally advanced tumors, however, revealed that surgeon experience had a significant impact on the number of

surgeries required for each patient, overall complication rate, and disease-free survival. Open resection of large laryngeal/pharyngeal tumors often requires reconstruction with pedicled or free flaps, particularly in the setting of previously irradiated tissue. Since TLM does not violate the skin and fascial planes, the risk of salivary leak/fistulae and the need for extensive reconstruction following oncologic ablation are reduced. Recurrent Laryngeal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Cancer Given the increase in organ preservation strategies (EBRT versus chemo-EBRT) for treatment of laryngeal tumors, a significant proportion of surgical treatment currently occurs in the salvage setting. This is in part driven by the propensity of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

(SCC) to develop through a field cancerization Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical phenomenon aminophylline driven by generalized exposure to conventional carcinogens.33 As discussed above, non-surgical treatment of early glottic tumors represents the primary treatment paradigm, at least in the United States.34,35 Although cure rates are extremely high, patients with laryngeal cancer exhibit significant rates of recurrence (early or late) as well as second primary tumor development. Since most patients cannot be re-irradiated to a curative dose, treatment for recurrent laryngeal cancer is primarily surgical. Within the context of recurrent laryngeal tumors, TLM has gained increased recognition as a useful treatment paradigm (Table 2). Two primary themes are evident from existing literature on TLM for recurrent disease. First, the rate of complications is higher than in the primary treatment setting.

133,134 Modafinil is a novel stimulant with an uncertain mechanis

133,134 Modafinil is a novel stimulant with an uncertain mechanism of action that may increase dopamine signaling.136 For newly diagnosed narcoleptics, modafinil may represent a reasonable initial choice because of its long duration of action, low frequency and severity of side effects, and low potential for dependence or tolerance. However, patients should be cautioned about drug interference with other medications, such as oral contraceptives. There are no well-controlled studies of pregnant women using stimulants. The benefits

for the patient have to be weighed against the potential risks for the fetus. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Mitlcr and colleagues recommend dosage reduction or discontinuation of stimulants during attempts at conception and during pregnancy.133 REM -suppressant drugs are utilized in the treatment of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. Drugs that block norepinephrine reuptake, such as the tricyclic antidepressants, protriptyline, clomipramine, and imipramine, have been effective, but are frequently associated with tolerance and anticholinergic side effects. Tricyclics should not be discontinued abruptly because Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the risk of severe aggravation of cataplexy, including status cataplecticus.136 SSRIs such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, and citalopram are also

effective. Vcnlafaxine, a norepinephrine/serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is highly effective and well tolerated. γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB),a short-acting putative neurotransmitter that acts as a hypnotic, GSK2656157 reduces cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and subjective sleepiness. Three to nine grams of GHB Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is administered in bed with half of the dose at bedtime and the remainder

2.5 to 3 h later. Nausea, dizziness, and incontinence have been reported with high doses. Due to the risk of precipitating confusional arousals and even coma, doses >9 g should never be prescribed. Triazolam may be useful in treating insomnia in narcoleptics Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical by increasing total sleep time and sleep efficiency without affecting alertness the following day.137 Nonpharmacological therapy includes regular sleep and wake times, short scheduled naps, prevention of sleep deprivation, avoidance of shift work, and working in a stimulating environment. Narcoleptic patients need to be cautioned about driving risks when undertreated. Idiopathic all hypersomnia Idiopathic hypersomnia is a clinically heterogeneous disorder of chronic sleepiness without cataplexy that has a prevalence of 2 to 5/100 000.138,139 Symptoms present between ages 15 to 30 years and include variable daytime drowsiness (nonimperative versus irresistible), naps that range from short and refreshing to long and unrefreshing, prolonged nighttime sleep >12 h or restless sleep with frequent arousals, sleep “drunkenness,” and automatic behavior associated with blank stares and microsleep episodes.4,138,139 Three subgroups of patients are recognized.

Indeed, Hopkins et al (2002) and Westergaard et al (1997) teste

Indeed, Hopkins et al. (2002) and Westergaard et al. (1997) tested the hand preference

using a lower number of tasks. Concerning the different results obtained from human subjects and monkeys, several find more explanations appear pertinent. Sociability plays an important role for the handedness (Hopkins 2006). Indeed, pedagogical or cultural pressures can influence the hand preference in humans, which is not considered to be the case in nonhuman primates. The postural origin theory of handedness offers a possible explanation for the monkey data (MacNeilage et al. 1987). Indeed, several studies showed a right-hand preference for more terrestrial species, whereas Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a left-hand preference was found for more arboreal animals (Masataka 1989; Singer and Schwibbe 1999; Hopkins et al. 2011; Meguerditchian et al. 2012; Zhao et al. 2012). In our case, our animal model, the M. fascicularis, is considered to be both arboreal and terrestrial (Fooden 2006; South Asian Primate C.A.M.P. Report, 2003; http://www.zooreach.org/downloads/ZOO_CAMP_PHVA_reports/2003%20Primate%20Report.pdf). Our results in M. fascicularis monkeys, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical showing a right- or left-hand preference depending on the tasks, is thus Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in line with the postural origin theory, in the sense that our animals did not show a clear right- or left-handedness, but an intermediate and

variable position, consistent with the mixed arboreal and terrestrial status of M. fascicularis. These data are consistent with hand preference observations derived from simple food reaching task, also in cynomolgus (M.

fascicularis) monkeys (Lehman 1980b). In a longitudinal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical study (from birth to weaning) conducted on a large number of monkeys (M. fascicularis), and based also on a task using a slot board but emphasizing more the attribute of hand dominance than hand preference (Brinkman and Smithson 2007), it was found that the infant monkeys showed a “dominant” hand at individual level (but bimodal distribution at population level). Their hand “dominance” was the same as that of their mother and, moreover, their pattern of grip movement resembled their mothers’, suggesting imitation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (Brinkman and Smithson 2007). In line with Hopkins (2004), the present data in M. fascicularis show that, as far as hand preference is concerned, they considerably diverge from human subjects (highly lateralized), whereas apes can be placed in between the two groups, with intermediate hand preference oxyclozanide characteristics. This wide range of behavioral lateralization is consistent with its multifactorial origin (see e.g., Rogers 2009; Schaafsma et al. 2009; Uomini 2009; Forrester et al. 2013). Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank the technical assistance of Josef Corpataux, Laurent Bossy and Jacques Maillard (animal house keeping), André Gaillard (mechanics), Bernard Aebischer (electronics), Laurent Monney (informatics). This study was supported by Swiss National Science Foundation, grants No. 31-61857.00, 310000-110005, 31003A-132465, and FZFS-0_144990 (E.