The median survival of patients with a CA 19-9 less than the post

The median survival of patients with a CA 19-9 less than the post-Proteasome inhibitor treatment median was 13.5 months compared with 7.2 months for those with a CA 19-9 level greater than the median (P=0.003). Patients with no decline in CA 19-9 had a significantly lower tumor response rate and a significantly worse overall survival (6 months compared to 13.9 months, P=0.0002). On multivariate analysis, pretreatment CA Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 19-9 values greater than and less than the median value of 420 U/mL, post-treatment CA 19-9 values, and a tumor marker decrease during therapy were significantly independent prognostic factors for overall survival. In another concurrent CRT

with conventional fractionation as the primary treatment in sixty-nine patients with LAPC, Koom et al. documented that the powerful cutoff points were pretreatment CA 19-9 level of 1,200 U/mL, post-treatment CA 19-9 level of 100 U/mL, and CA 19-9 decline of 40% (11). Their

data support the theory that post-treatment CA19-9 levels and CA19-9 decline are significant prognostic factors. These results are Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical very similar to our findings in the present study. On univariate analysis, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical we found that post CRT CA 19-9 <50 U/mL, post CRT CA 19-9 <85.5 U/mL, percent change ≥90%, and histologic grade all showed prognostic significance predictor of survival. The median survival of patients with a CA 19-9 less than the post-treatment median was 10.3 months compared with those with a CA 19-9 level greater than the median value of 85.5 U/mL (P=0.0242). Our results were confirmed on multivariate analysis Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical showing that a post treatment CA 19-9 level less than the median value of 85.5 U/mL was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. A strength of our study was that the first post-CRT CA 19-9 levels was tested in 50 point increments and percent change in pre and post

treatment CA 19-9 was tested in 10% increments. This allowed us to detect subtle incremental changes that would otherwise not have been detected if a different method Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was used. In addition, all patients with a serum bilirubin more than 2 mg/dL at the time of CA 19-9 measurement were excluded to account for altered biliary excretion, for which bilirubin is a reasonable marker. This has been documented to occur at levels 1.5× the upper limit of normal or at a level of approximately 2.0 mg/dL (15). The retrospective nature and sample size are limitations of Rolziracetam our study. Patients with CA 19-9 levels within normal limits were not tested for the Lewis antigen. Lewisa-b- and are unable to increase their serum CA 19-9 levels and were not excluded from our analysis (16). However, only approximately 5% of the population are Lewisa-b- so this was unlikely to have a significant effect on our patient population In this study, we analyzed CA 19-9 as a prognostic factor and determined its utility in developing treatment strategies and designing future clinical trials.

He began to study the nervous influence on cardiac contraction an

He began to study the nervous influence on cardiac contraction and was the first to demonstrate, in 1850, the refractory period of the heart muscle. The innervations of the heart were a subject of numerous projects throughout his career. In another study he established the importance of the neck muscles on stability. His work was hailed, and the French Academy awarded him the most prestigious Monthyon Prize for his work on the influence of the autonomic nervous system on body temperature and bone nutrition. At this stage Schiff applied for the position of Privatdozent in zoology at the

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical University of Göttingen. The university was ready to accept him, but the Ministry in Hanover, taking intoaccount his ancestry and liberal revolutionary past, vetoed the appointment. In 1856, Schiff moved to Bern as an assistant professor of Comparative Zoology.

He conducted studies on the influence of the autonomic nervous system on the production of sugar in the liver, thus explaining Claude Bernard’s observation of the appearance of diabetes following Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical some brain lesions. It was Palbociclib purchase during these studies that Schiff described the occurrence of extension of the forelimbs together with paradoxical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical respiration as a grave prognostic sign after spinal cord injury. This observation was repeated by Sherrington 40 years later, and the eponym “Schiff–Sherrington reflex” was thus coined.2 In 1856 Schiff demonstrated that animals of various species could not survive after removal of the thyroid gland, but neither physiologists nor physicians of that time were prepared for the study of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical this ductless

gland. This pioneering work passed unnoticed, to be recognized only three decades later.3 FLORENCE Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical After Italy’s second War of Independence, it was decided to restore the prestigious academic level of the Italian universities that had suffered during the post-Napoleonic Austrian occupation. Matteucci, the renowned physiologist and Schiff’s former mentor in Paris, was now an eminent statesman, and he invited Schiff, whose fame as a superb experimenter had spread, to chair and lead physiological research at the University of Florence. In 1862 Moritz Schiff went to Florence together with his brother Hugo, the inventor of the Schiff reagent. In Florence Schiff’s productivity flourished. those He continued and expanded his studies on the vasomotor nerves and their central origin and on the innervations of the heart. As part of his neurophysiologic studies, he tried to quantify sensations by the size of the pupil (Figure 1).4 Figure 1 Moritz Schiff, circa 1860. The production and fate of bile salts engaged many scientists. In 1860 Schiff proposed his solution to the problem. He returned the excreted bile, collected via a fistula, into the duodenum and demonstrated definitively the re-absorption of bile salts from the intestines in a positive feedback loop.

9-12 Initially, beneficial effects of stem cell therapy on revers

9-12 Initially, beneficial effects of stem cell therapy on reverse myocardial remodelling were attributed to de novo myocardiogenesis. Although this was shown to occur in some animal studies, it was not confirmed uniformly. Today, it is believed that stem cells exert their beneficial effect on ischemic myocardium mainly through neovascularization

and paracrine effects.13 It has been shown that stem cells inhibit synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF alpha, IL-6) and promote expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10).14-16 The proinflammatory cytokines TNF alpha and IL-6 have a direct cytotoxic effect Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical on cardiomyocytes, can inhibit cardiac contractile function, and have been shown to induce apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. They also act as chemoattracting agents, promoting the chemotaxis of inflammatory cells into the myocardium.14-16 Furthermore, stem cells have been shown to improve cardiac function through

regulation of this website fibroblast proliferation and downregulation of types I and III collagen synthesis.17 Clinical Effects of Stem Cell Therapy Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in Ischemic Heart Failure The first clinical trial evaluating the effects of stem cell therapy on ischemic heart failure was reported in 2002. In 2006, three large randomized clinical trials (ASTAMI, REPAIR-AMI, and TOPCARE-CHD ) were published.18-20 Although results on the beneficial effects of stem cells on myocardial function from these first trials were somewhat conflicting, further clinical trials (BOOST, STAR-HEART, SCIPIO, CADUCEUS,

REGENT, FocusHF, and others) suggest the beneficial effects of stem cells on the function and remodeling of ischemic myocardium (Table Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 1).21-25 Table 1 Prospective randomized trials of stem cell therapy in ischemic heart failure. In the Focus-HF trial, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Perin et al. were able to demonstrate that intramyocardial transplantation of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells in patients with ischemic heart failure improved quality of life and exercise capacity.26 They attributed these beneficial effects of stem cells to improved perfusion of the ischemic myocardium. Similarly, Losordo et al. showed that intramyocardial application of CD34+ stem cells in patients with refractory angina significantly reduced frequency and duration of anginal episodes.27 Furthermore, the SCIPIO trial showed that intracoronary infusion of cardiac stem cells in patients Adenosine with ischemic heart failure who had suffered an acute MI resulted in a reduction of infarct size and improved left ventricular function.25 However, this trial was done on patients who underwent prior coronary artery bypass grafting, and there is a possibility that at least some beneficial effects that were attributed to stem cell treatment were in fact the result of improved coronary perfusion due to revascularization. The largest randomized clinical trial on stem cells and chronic ischemic heart failure to date was STAR-HEART, done by Strauer et al. in 2010.

, 2004) In a systematic review by Gavin et al (2005), the combi

, 2004). In a systematic review by Gavin et al. (2005), the combined point prevalence Selleck SAR405838 of postpartum depression (PPD) was estimated to range from 6.5 to 12.9% during the pregnancy and the first-year postpartum, based on 28 studies from Western or high-income countries. The strongest predictors of maternal depressive symptoms postpartum have been reported to be a past history of

psychological disturbances during pregnancy, poor marital relationship, low social support, and stressful life events (O’Hara & Swain, 1996). In a recent systematic review from low- and middle-income countries (including Bangladesh), Fischer et al. (2011) cited a prevalence of almost 20% for common mental illnesses, such as depression and anxiety postpartum. The strongest risk factors reported by Fischer et al. (2011) were, for example, socio-economic disadvantages, a lack of intimate empathy, a lack of emotional and practical support, having hostile in-laws, and having an experience of intimate partner violence. In a longitudinal study among rural Bangladeshi women, the prevalence of depressive symptoms was found to be18.3% during pregnancy, 14.1% at 2–3 months, and 31.7% 6–8 months postpartum (Nasreen, 2011). In high-income countries, childbirth is rarely a life-threatening event any longer (Eberhard-Gran,

Metabolism inhibitor Garthus-Niegel, Garthus-Niegel, & Eskild, 2010). A vast majority of women give birth in hospital, and the mother and infant are usually discharged from hospital within 2 days after giving birth after being provided with instructions concerning infant feeding, diet, and exercise (Jain

& Levy, 2013). Compared to the Western countries, giving birth in Bangladesh is still hazardous for women and 76% of the deliveries take place at home with help from traditional birth attendants. Almost 80% of maternal deaths occur in the rural parts of the country (Mamun et al., 2012). In Bangladesh, a traditional practice is for the new mothers to rest for 40 days the after childbirth, to eat a special diet, and stay indoors during the first postpartum period. As the new mother is regarded “unclean” due to menstrual bleeding, she is not allowed to either wash or prepare food, and therefore housework is generally done by the others (Eberhard-Gran et al., 2010). In a literature review of 14 studies from five continents, Bina (2008) focused on the association between cultural factors and postpartum depressive symptoms and arrived at some conflicting results. In eight of the studies, she found that cultural rituals had an alleviating impact on the depressive symptoms and that a lack of cultural traditions led to increased prevalence of depressive symptoms postpartum. One study reported a lack of association, and the other suggested that cultural traditions could contribute to postpartum depression. Bina (2008) emphasised the importance of the mothers’ perception of support as being satisfactory.

118 Among men, a high depression score was significantly associat

118 Among men, a high depression score was significantly associated with RLS severity. However, such a cross-sectional study cannot determine whether the depression is a consequence of the syndrome or if RLS existed before the RLS appears. In another study, around 45% of

a sample of 218 RLS patients had been diagnosed as having a mood disorder (depression or affective psychosis) in the 5 years prior to the diagnosis of RLS.119 As pointed out by these authors, and illustrated by some case reports,120 it is possible that the sleep complaints of RLS could be incorrectly interpreted as a symptom of depression. However, it is also logical to consider Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that discomfort Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical caused by RLS and the chronic sleep disturbances were triggers for depression, as it has been shown that persons complaining of insomnia have a high risk of developing depression.121,122

In a study evaluating the prevalence and impact of RLS in the general male adult Ruxolitinib cost population, there was a tendency towards reported Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical isolation related to RLS.123 Subjects with RLS were more likely to report depressed mood (odds ratio [OR] =2.6) and complained more often of reduced libido (OR=2.2). In another recent study, RLS patients had significantly higher depression and anxiety scores measured by the Zung Self-Rating Scales than control subjects and had similar electroencephalographic (EEG) changes to patients with major depression.124 In a population-based, cross-sectional study in adults, utilizing the Hamilton Rating Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Scales for Anxiety and Depression, the mean anxiety and depression scores of patients were 8.03 (±6.02) and 9.27 (±5.03), respectively, which were significantly higher than those of the control group.125 Interestingly, these values correlated with the severity score of the RLS, with higher scores correlating with more severe RLS. No data on the temporal relationship of RLS and anxiety/depression symptoms Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical were provided, and so the causality of this relationship

could not be established. A more recent study attempted to answer this question and added new insights to the relationship between RLS and psychiatric morbidity. In their survey, Winkelmann these et al126 revived the term “anxietas tibiarum” and examined rates of depression and anxiety according to DSM-IV criteria in patients with RLS, compared with a group of controls from a community sample with somatic illness. RLS patients reported higher 12-month rates of any depressive disorder (OR=2.6), panic attacks (OR=2.9), panic disorder (OR=5.2), or generalized anxiety disorder (OR=3.7). RLS patients with depression attributed their sleep disturbances, depressed mood, and reduced interest as being due to their RLS symptoms.

However, the intimate partner violence could be worse and one wom

However, the intimate partner violence could be worse and one woman, whose husband already had one wife, said: “He just beats me … ever since this woman (the first wife returned after husband’s second marriage) came, he can’t stand the sight of me” (22 years, 4-para). Even if there was no intimate partner violence, several women reported problematic relationship and sometimes violence in the family and that they were scared of other family members. For one woman, the violence from in-laws during the pregnancy was so bad

that it was reported to the police. This mother said: “I am scared of them (the parents-in-law), they look at me threateningly, and they FGFR inhibitor want to pick issues. When they come home, I stay in my room and don’t go out” (20 years, Forskolin price 2-para). The mothers also reported conflicts about inheritance in the families. In one family, the mother said that there was quarrelling and fights between her and her brother-in-law after her father-in-law’s death because she thought her “brother-in-law

will swindle her husband … because he is not too sharp” (24 years, 3-para). Another mother left her husband before the birth of her daughter, due to violence from both her husband and in-laws during her pregnancy because they wanted more money as a dowry. Limits of survival Poverty All the women reported that their families were poor and had a difficult economic situation, except for two women who said they “had enough to eat, but not to sell” (45 years, 5-para) and “not too much and not too little” (36 MTMR9 years, 7-para). These families had their own land for cultivation. Mostly, the women’s husbands did farming on others’ lands and several families did not have any steady income due to the husbands’ unemployment, irregular employment, or poor health, which made the husbands unable to work full time.

The mothers spoke a lot about financial worries and that the families “suffer hardships” and “live hand to mouth” (29 years, 6-para). The majority of the women expressed that they did not have enough to eat. With a single income, which most of the families lived on, the mothers had difficulties in properly feeding all: “It is difficult to depend on one person only in such a big family” (36 years, 7-para). Another mother said, “I have a big sorrow in my heart … I cannot look after my baby the way I would like to. I can’t feed him properly. I have such pain in my heart for this” (20 years, 2-para). Insecurity Pregnancy and childbirth were very insecure periods for these poor women and were associated with risk for the woman’s life. Several mothers said that they had fear of dying during the delivery, and expressed fear for what would happen with the children if they died: “Who will look after them, love them if my husband marries again?” (36 years, 7-para). The women expressed fear that complications during the pregnancy may force them to go to the hospital for the delivery and put a strain on their economic situation.

Forward treatment Indeed, the experience of the first war months

Forward treatment Indeed, the experience of the first war months and the unexpected large influx of psychiatric casualties led to a change in treatment approaches. The evacuation of psychiatric casualties to the rear became less systematic as the experience of the remaining war years convinced psychiatrists that treatment should be carried out near the frontline, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and that evacuation only led to chronic disability. It was noticed that soldiers treated in a frontline hospital, benefiting from the emotional support

of their comrades, had a high likelihood of returning to their unit, whereas those who were evacuated often showed a poor prognosis, with chronic symptoms that ultimately led to discharge from the military. Also, it was discovered that prognosis was better if the convalescing soldiers remained in the setting of the military hierarchy, rather than in a more relaxed hospital environment. Thus, by the end of 1916, evacuations

became rare and patients were treated instead in forward centers, staffed by noncommissioned officers Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (NCOs), within hearing distance of the frontline guns and with the expectation of prompt recovery.11 Treatment in the forward area (psychiatrie de l’avant) became the standard treatment, along with the five key principles summarized in 1917 by the American physician Thomas W. Salmon,12 chief consultant Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in psychiatry with the American Expeditionary Forces in France: immediacy, proximity, expectancy, simplicity, and centrality. Immediacy meant treating as early as possible, before acute stress Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was succeeded by a latent period that often heralded the development of chronic symptoms; proximity meant treating the patient near the frontline, within hearing distance of the battle din, instead of evacuating him to the peaceful atmosphere Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the rear, which he would, understandably, never wish to leave; expectancy referred to the positive expectation

of a prompt cure, which was instilled into the patient by means of a persuasive psychotherapy; simplicity was the use of simple treatment means such as rest, sleep, and a practical psychotherapy that avoided exploring civilian and childhood traumas; finally, centrality was a coherent organization to regulate the flow of psychiatric casualties from the forward area to the rear, and a coherent therapeutic doctrine adopted those by all medical personnel. Salmon’s principles were disccwered independently and applied universally by all warring sides; only to be forgotten, and rediscovered again, during World War II. Among the many treatment applied to stress find more disorders, one was much used during WWI, and scarcely at all during WWII: the application of electrical current, also called faradization. This was probably because motor symptoms, such as tremor, paralysis, contractions, limping, or fixed postures, were common during WWI, and rare in WWII.

Cell lines that were resistant to killing by IT-141 were also res

Cell lines that were resistant to killing by IT-141 were also resistant to free SN-38, which may indicate a natural insensitivity of these cell lines to inhibition of topoisomerase I. This could arise through alterations in the expression of, or mutations in, the gene encoding topoisomerase I or the activity of drug

efflux pumps [37]. It has been shown that the drug efflux pump ABCG2 is overexpressed in cells resistant to SN-38 [38]. The pharmacokinetic profile of IT-141 demonstrated significant improvement in exposure and CMax for SN-38, with a modest improvement in half-life, compared to SN-38 derived Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical from irinotecan. Importantly, the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical plasma AUC from IT-141 exposure was 14-fold higher than the SN-38 exposure from irinotecan administered at the same dose (34.6μghr/mL versus 2.5μghr/mL). Similarly, IT-141 demonstrated higher exposure in HT-29 tumors, as measured by AUC, than irinotecan. The higher AUC of IT-141 in the tumor indicated that it would potentially be more efficacious than irinotecan in xenograft models. Indeed, IT-141 was found to be superior Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to irinotecan in an HT-29 xenograft model and was potent in dose-range finding studies in both HT-29 and HCT-116 xenografts. In both models, tumor regression was observed at 30mg/kg in the HT-29 model and 15mg/kg in the HCT116 model. During the

development of IT-141, it was found that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical IT-141 could be formulated with SN-38 with weight loadings in the range of 1–14%. Different IT-141 formulations were prepared with varying weight loadings of SN-38 and were evaluated in an HT-29 xenograft experiment. It was found that IT-141-4%w/w had equivalent antitumor activity to IT-141-11%w/w, demonstrating no differences in efficacy between these formulations. It can be speculated, therefore, that selleck chemicals llc despite SN-38 loading

differences between the micelle, equivalent or similar overall concentrations of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical SN-38 are being delivered to these tumors. In summary, IT-141 is a novel SN-38-loaded polymer micelle with superior pharmacokinetics Tolmetin and antitumor activity compared to irinotecan. Although irinotecan is effective in the clinic, the ability to deliver SN-38 could be a superior treatment option for many patients. These data suggest that IT-141 may show activity in patients with solid tumors. 5. Conclusions IT-141 is a micelle containing encapsulated SN-38 that was designed for systemic delivery. IT-141 increased the solubility of SN-38 by ~6,000-fold and had a diameter of 130nm. IT-141 demonstrated superior pharmacokinetics to irinotecan and potent antitumor activity in HT-29 and HCT-116 colorectal cancer xenograft models. In summary, IT-141 is a promising new therapeutic agent for colorectal cancer that warrants clinical investigation.

It is a relatively new investigative tool that will likely be use

It is a relatively new investigative tool that will likely be used more in the next few years, particularly in conjunction with functional measures of the brain. Implications and future directions for research Based on a review of structural neuroimaging studies in schizophrenia, it is clear that schizophrenia is a brain disorder that shows marked, albeit subtle, neuroanatomical abnormalities that are multifocal in nature and which likely involve brain circuits and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical networks which subserve cognition and behavior. Evidence also suggests that schizophrenia involves a disorder of neural and cognitive integration, an idea that has long been proposed in the schizophrenia literature. Some

of the more recent theories that touch upon disordered integration include the dysmetria theory proposed by Andreasen et al,70 the failure of integration proposed by Gruzelier et al,71 Feinberg’s30 theory of aberrant synaptic pruning, Friston’s72

theory of abnormal synaptic modulation, and Bartzokis’s73 theory Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical which suggests that the underlying cause of neural integration may be abnormalities in myelination processes that occur in the periadolescent period. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Despite promising findings, however, we are still far from understanding the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Some of the outstanding questions that remain to be addressed if we are to understand the etiology of schizophrenia are: When do structural brain abnormalities first occur? What are the microstructural underpinnings Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of these structural brain abnormalities? Is there a causative www.selleckchem.com/products/INCB18424.html relationship between gray matter abnormalities observed with MRI and white matter abnormalities observed with DTI? Do all of the structural brain abnormalities associated with schizophrenia progress with illness, or are some stable over time? Is it possible to arrest these progressive neuroanatomical changes once they have begun? As brain abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia have been shown to be associated with cognitive and clinical

symptoms, how do Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical we understand improvement in cognitive and clinical symptoms which are often concomitant with progressive volume reductions following the first episode of illness? What is the relationship between the structural brain abnormalities characteristic of schizophrenia and the equally well documented functional these brain abnormalities (eg, such as observed with PET, fMRI, etc)? Can neuroanatomical, neuropsychological, or clinical phenotypes be used to predict who will go on to develop schizophrenia and who will not? These are among the questions that we need to address in future studies. While these questions are daunting, there is nonetheless reason for optimism. The technological advances in neuroimaging that have led to new discoveries about the brain and its role in schizophrenia will continue.

The most recent fatawas and articles of the most important Islami

The most recent fatawas and articles of the most important Islamic ulama of our time show that the ulama are unanimously in agreement against the “sale” of human organs for live donors. The Islamic Fiqh Academy in Jeddah published the final announcement of a Ku-0059436 purchase conference on organ donations in Islam held in March 2009 in the presence of (the late) Sheikh al-Azhar Muhammad Sayyid

Tantawi (Al-Azhar University is a 1,000-year-old institution for high Islamic studies located in Cairo; the Sheikh of al-Azhar Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is considered a very senior religious leader for the Sunni Islamic world), stating the prohibition of any person on selling any part of his body. Donation, however, is permitted between relatives. According to the statement: “The human body is sanctified by Allah who had forbidden turning it into an Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical item for commercial sale, purchase, or exchange. Man must be a reliable guard of his body.”15,16 Sheikh Zaki Badawi, an important religious leader of Muslims in Britain and an expert on shari’a who died in 2006, was the most senior Islamic alim in Britain. He published an elaborate learned opinion on the matter, together with a long list of important British Islamic personalities. He stated: “Organ donation must be given freely without reward. Trading

in organs is prohibited.”17 Sheikh Yusuf Abdulla al-Qaradawi opposes “selling” Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical organs because he does not want human organs to become merchandise to be bargained over. However, he allows live Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical donors to unrelated beneficiaries to receive a gift or a gift of honor (ikramiyya).13 Qaradawi, Badawi, and Tantawi belong to the centrist group, while some Wahhabi (the religious affiliation of the Saudi regime which is considered as offering a harsh literal interpretation of the law) jurists, such Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as the late IbnBaz (Abdul Aziz ibn Abdullah ibn Baz, served as the Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia from

1993 until his death in 1999), are totally against any organ transplantation and oppose CYTH4 any sale of human organs from live people.18,19 Another source belonging to the Wahhabi movement is the book on organ transplantation in Islam by Dr Amin Muhammad Salam al-Batush. He asks the question: “Is the human body the property of its owner?” His answer is that there is no law, nature, or logic which could allow the sale of human body parts, since Allah sanctified and separated humankind from other beings. He also states that saleable goods are those which are detached from the human being, not those which are connected to him.20 Hamdy states that all the ulama of al-Azhar and dar al-Ifta’ have permitted organ transplantation under the conditions that there be life-saving benefit to the recipient, no harm to the living donor, and no commercial exchange.