69, MSE =  30, p <  01, partial η2 =  64 Bonferroni post hoc com

69, MSE = .30, p < .01, partial η2 = .64. Bonferroni post hoc comparisons suggested that there were significant differences (all ps < .01) between all of the groups in SM (except for Groups 2 and 3, which did not differ [p > .90] and Groups 4 and 5, which did not differ [p > .17]). Importantly, the pattern of results across the three factors suggested that some of the groups demonstrated specific deficits or strengths

on one factor rather than necessarily all factors. Other groups, however, demonstrated deficits on all factors buy KRX-0401 or strengths on all factors. Specifically, Group 1 consisted of low ability participants who scored below average on all three factors and tended to have the lowest overall scores on each factor. Group 2 consisted of individuals who were above average on both capacity and AC, but were relatively weak on SM. In fact, this

group had some of the strongest AC scores. Thus, this group demonstrated clear strengths on capacity and AC, but slight deficits on SM. Group 3 consisted of individuals who were close to average on all three factors. Group 4, demonstrated below average capacity and weak to average AC, but above average SM. In fact, this group demonstrated some of the strongest SM scores. Thus, this group seems to be the exact opposite of Group 2 with these individuals demonstrating strengths in SM, but deficits in capacity and somewhat in AC. Indeed, as noted in Footnote 3 this group had some of the lowest K estimates. Finally, Group 5 consisted of high

ability participants who scored high on all three factors and p38 inhibitors clinical trials tended to have the highest overall scores on each factor. Furthermore, as shown in Table 4, the groups tended to differ in their levels of WM storage, WM processing, and gF. Specifically, examining WM storage suggested a significant below difference between the groups, F(4, 166) = 7.22, MSE = .75, p < .01, partial η2 = .15, with Group 1 scoring generally below the other groups and Group 5 scoring above the other groups. Bonferroni post hoc comparisons suggested that Group 1 scored significantly lower on WM storage than all other groups (all ps < .05) except for Group 3 (p > .19). Groups 2 and 4 only differed from Group 1 (all other p’s > .52) and Group 3 only differed from Group 5 (all other p’s > .19). Examining WM processing suggested a significant difference between the groups, F(4, 166) = 6.87, MSE = .71, p < .01, partial η2 = .15, with Groups 2 and 5 having faster WM processing times than the other groups. Specifically, Bonferroni post hoc comparisons suggested that Groups 2 and 5 differed from the other groups (all p’s < .01), but did not differ from one another (p > .90). Furthermore, the other groups did not differ from one another (all p’s > .90). Thus, both groups that scored high on AC had the fastest WM processing times. Finally, examining gF suggested a significant difference between the groups, F(4, 166) = 14.04, MSE = .53, p < .

, 2004, Sunderland et al , 2009, Hendriks et al , 2012 and Siriga

, 2004, Sunderland et al., 2009, Hendriks et al., 2012 and Sirigar et al., 2012). Lack of information, EPZ5676 mouse however, may not be the problem. Rather, opportunity costs may be too high for the landholder to undertake restoration, benefits may accrue to others or society at large but not to the landholder, or both. Fully understanding the distribution of costs and benefits of restoration is critical to achieving optimal landscape designs. The benefits of participatory management have been advanced (Redpath et al., 2013 and Young et al., 2013) as normative (strengthening democratic processes), substantive (additional knowledge and improved decision-making), and instrumental (improved

legitimacy and trust with reduced intensity of conflicts). Berkes (2009) reviewed this topic and provided these key insights: institutions (government agency and local organizations)

are not monolithic and have a multiplicity of interests; co-management is not a static formal structure of roles and responsibilities but rather a fluid problem-solving arrangement. Various methods are available to inform restoration project formulation and assess impacts on local communities (Chambers, 1994). One tool, participatory mapping, can be used to integrate social and biophysical perspectives by displaying spatially the location of resources, their condition, and how they are used (e.g., Boedhihartono and Sayer, 2012 and Hewitt et al., 2014). Because co-management occurs within a social learn more context, no single approach will yield universally positive results (Young et al., 2013). Therefore, gathering information and understanding the social dimensions of a restoration project is as necessary as understanding the biophysical dimensions (Charnley, 2006 and Knight et al., 2008). As Crow (2014) concluded, social considerations can trump

biophysical factors. We thank HA-1077 datasheet the participants of Science Considerations in Functional Restoration: A Workshop for their insights into current restoration approaches and the US Forest Service, Research and Development Deputy Area for partial support. Marilyn Buford and Randy Johnson are thanked for their project support and for arranging, with Mary Beth Adams, the workshop, ably assisted by Joe McNeel and his staff from West Virginia University. We also thank Jim Marin for the figures. We express gratitude to two annonymous reviewers for their helpful suggestions that improved this work. The views expressed are strictly those of the authors and do not represent the positions or policy of their respective institutions. “
“Reliable data on the status and trends of tree genetic resources of present or potential benefit to humans are required to support the sustainable management of perhaps as many as 100,000 tree species found globally inside and outside forests (Oldfield et al., 1998).

for providing the data and making MyFLq easily accessible on thei

for providing the data and making MyFLq easily accessible on their BaseSpace platform. “
“This article has been published in Forensic Science International Volume 7, Issues 5, e8–e12, April 2012. However, this article was submitted as part of DNA in Forensics 2012 special issue and should have been published as such in this issue (Volume 7, Issues 6, 2013). The article can be located at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsigen.2013.06.003. Dabrafenib order The publisher would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused. “
“In the Abstract of the article “Prognostic Factors for Clinical Outcomes in Endodontic Microsurgery: A Retrospective Study” (J Endod 2011;37:927–33),

under “Results,” in the second and third

sentences, “root-filling length (adequate)” should be changed to “root-filling length (inadequate).” The correct sentences now read, “At the 0.05 level of significance, age, sex (female), tooth position (anterior), root-filling length (inadequate), lesion type (endodontic lesion), root-end filling material (mineral trioxide aggregate and Super EBA; Harry J. Bosworth, Skokie, IL), and restoration at follow-up appeared to have a positive effect on the outcome. On the other hand, with an isolated endodontic lesion, the tooth position (anterior), root-filling length (inadequate), and restoration at follow-up were significant

Sitaxentan factors at the 95% confidence level. On page Neratinib mouse 931, 7th line of the 4th full paragraph in the right hand column, “root-filling length (adequate)” should be changed to “root-filling length (inadequate). “
“In the article “Numeric Comparison of the Static Mechanical Behavior between ProFile GT and ProFile GT Series X Rotary Nickel-Titanium Files” (J Endod 2011;37:1158–61), the results shown for the torsion case are for a torque of 1.25 Nmm instead of the 2.5 Nmm mentioned. Note that this does not affect, in any way, the discussion or the conclusions regarding the comparison between the rotary instruments’ performance. “
“The creation of new DNA profiling technologies and their application to forensic science is key to the field’s development. Improvements to the speed, sensitivity and power of discrimination are all common areas of research [1], [2] and [3]. Recently there have been moves towards the development of technologies focussing on automation and portability which, together with cost reduction, will usher in the next generation of forensic platforms [4]. Rapid DNA profiling is one such area of research and development and has been growing in response to a desire from enforcement authorities for both in-house control over the forensic DNA process and rapid access to forensic genetic intelligence [5].

Our recent study using comparative analysis of expressed sequence

Our recent study using comparative analysis of expressed sequence

tags Selleckchem BGB324 (ESTs) [7] showed that P. ginseng and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) concurrently experienced two rounds of genome duplication events based on the number of substitutions per synonymous site (Ks) of paralogous gene pairs. The more recent event is estimated to have occurred at Ks = 0.02–0.04, which corresponds to about 1.6–3.3 million years ago based on adopting a synonymous substitution rate of 6.1 × 10−9 substitutions/synonymous site/year [8]. However, genomic sequence-based clues and features have not yet been described to uncover the duplicated genome structure for P. ginseng. We have developed large numbers of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers designed from ESTs and genomic sequences for mapping and cultivar authentication. When we amplified ginseng genomic DNA CP-868596 in vitro with SSR markers, we observed multiple bands from almost all of the primer pairs [9] and [10]. These phenomena

cannot be abolished by changing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conditions and extending primer length. In other reports on ginseng SSR markers, the number of alleles ranged from two to nine and the observed heterozygosity of markers is usually greater than 0.5 [11], [12] and [13]. These results show that multiple bands are consistently generated with ginseng genomic DNA; whether the multiple bands originate from different loci or the same locus can be confusing. For instance, two bands appearing in one cultivar could be misinterpreted as representing a heterozygous form even though they were derived from two independent loci. Meanwhile, chloroplast genome sequence-based markers produced clear single bands from ginseng genomic DNA [14], which may indicate that the recently duplicated nuclear genome causes multiple bands to be coincidently amplified by the same primer set. This study was conducted Phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase to examine whether

the multiple band patterns of PCR products are associated with the genome duplication of P. ginseng. We sequenced SSR bands produced by five EST-SSR markers that were previously selected as the best and most clearly polymorphic SSR markers to authenticate ginseng cultivars in a screening of more than 200 SSR markers [10]. Sequence comparisons of SSR bands derived from multiple loci and multiple alleles showed the sequence level differences in the duplicated genome and thus promoted our understanding of genomics and whole genome sequencing of P. ginseng. Leaf samples of six ginseng cultivars (Chunpoong, Yunpoong, Sunpoong, Sunone, Sunun, and Gopoong) were collected from a research field of Seoul National University, Suwon, Korea. The total DNA of the samples was extracted by modified cetyltrimethylammonium bromide methods [15]. Five EST-SSR markers (gm47n, gm45n, gm129, gm175, and gm184) that have shown clear polymorphism among Korean ginseng cultivars in previous work [9] and [10] were used for amplification in several cultivars showing different genotypes.

g , Eckhart, 1992:83) By the early 1800s coal was being mined in

g., Eckhart, 1992:83). By the early 1800s coal was being mined in portions of the Eastern and Southern Anthracite Fields drained by both the Lehigh and Schuylkill rivers and by 1850 AD mining had spread to all districts encompassing these fields (Powell, 1980:10). Water transport of coal to local and more distant markets was important from the outset; and the construction of canals on both the Lehigh and Schuylkill rivers during the 1820s and 1830s attests to the importance of this mode of transport as well as the growing demand and production of coal. The employment of “arks” or square boxes, flat boats and canal boats Fasudil chemical structure continues into the 1850s when railroads are increasingly used to bring coal to regional

markets (Eckhart, 1992 and Powell, 1980). Eckhart’s (1992) summary of coal shipments on the Schuylkill and Lehigh Canals demonstrates

the dramatic increase in production (Fig. 5). Other than canal shipment, culm banks (mine tailings) are the most apparent source for the coal that composes the MCE. The coal mining recovery process involved extracting anthracite from non-economic material (e.g., interbedded slate) and eventually resulted in large human-made accumulations of culm that were often piled adjacent to the mine area. These banks eventually became an economic anthracite source and were subsequently filtered during bank recovery. The waste from culm bank recovery was often intentionally or unintentionally introduced into nearby streams (Sisler, 1928). The stockpiling of culm, the use of water in culm bank recovery, and the need to periodically drain water from underground mines dramatically increased the potential for coal sands and silts Afatinib chemical structure to be incorporated

into Clomifene riverine settings. By 1870 AD there was so much coal silt in the Schuylkill Canal that it was impossible to maintain sufficient depth for boats to navigate and this may be linked with bank recovery efforts (Catalano and Zwikl, 2009:8). Silt infilling of the Schuylkill River main channel was documented as late as 1948 (Towne, 2012) (Fig. 5). The silting of the Schuylkill River channel, and possibly the Lehigh, would have impacted flooding through more frequent and higher magnitude floods. The mine tailings blanketing the channel floor serves as a likely source for MCE sediment. Although the results presented here cannot demonstrate with certainty whether canal transport or culm bank recovery was the primary source of coal fines, it is clear that as people increased production and transport of coal to meet the growing market demands they unknowingly generated a lithologically distinct alluvial-sediment source that, with time, blanketed large portions of the Lehigh and Schuylkill River valley bottoms. Refining the MCE chronology requires careful consideration of the history of coal mining in the study area, focusing upon the intensity of coal production through time and how coal was processed and transported to markets.

g , Kolbert, 2011) and among scientists from a variety of discipl

g., Kolbert, 2011) and among scientists from a variety of disciplines. Curiously, there has been little discussion of the topic within the discipline of archeology, an historical science that is well positioned to address the long term processes involved in how humans have come to dominate our planet (see Redman, 1999 and Redman et al., 2004). In organizing this volume, which grew out of a 2013 symposium at the Society of American Archaeology meetings held in Honolulu (Balter, 2013), we sought to rectify this situation by inviting a distinguished group of archeologists

to examine the issue of humanity’s expanding Veliparib concentration footprint on Earth’s ecosystems. The papers in this issue utilize archeological records to consider the Anthropocene from a variety of topical or regional perspectives. The first two papers address general and global issues, including Smith and Zeder’s

discussion of human niche construction and the development of agricultural and pastoral societies, as well as Braje and Erlandson’s summary of late Pleistocene and Holocene extinctions as a continuum mediated by climate change, human activities, and other factors. Several papers then look at the archeology of human landscape transformation within specific regions of the world: C. Melvin Aikens and Gyoung-Ah Lee for East Asia, Sarah McClure for Europe, Anna Roosevelt for Amazonia, and Douglas Kennett and Timothy Beach for Mesoamerica. Later chapters again address global issues: from Torben Rick, Patrick Kirch, Erlandson, and Scott Fitzpatrick’s summary of ancient human impacts on three well-studied learn more island archipelagos (Polynesia, California’s Channel Islands, and the Caribbean) around the world; to Erlandson’s discussion of the widespread post-glacial appearance of coastal, Aprepitant riverine, and lake-side shell middens as a potential stratigraphic marker

of the Anthropocene; and Kent Lightfoot, Lee Panich, Tsim Schneider, and Sara Gonzalez’ exploration of the effects of colonialism and globalization along the Pacific Coast of North America and around the world. Finally, we complete the volume with concluding remarks that examine the breadth of archeological approaches to the Anthropocene, and the significance and implications of understanding the deep historical processes that led to human domination of Earth’s ecosystems. In this introduction we provide a broad context for the articles that follow by: (1) briefly discussing the history of the Anthropocene concept (see also Smith and Zeder, 2014); (2) summarizing the nature of archeological approaches to understanding human impacts on ancient environments; (3) setting the stage with a brief overview of human evolution, demographic expansion and migrations, and the acceleration of technological change; (4) and identifying some tipping points and key issues involved in an archeological examination of the Anthropocene.

Dead wasps were treated and mycosis assessed as described in Sect

Dead wasps were treated and mycosis assessed as described in Section 2.4. Larvae of D. radicum from each host patch arena were placed in glass vials and frozen overnight. The larvae were subsequently dissected and observed for parasitoid eggs in dilutions of a few drops of green food coloring dye (Ekströms, Sweden) in 10 ml distilled water. Two separate drops of the mixture were pipetted on a glass slide, one Selleck CB-839 larva was placed in one drop, and the head cut off with a scalpel. With the blunt end of the scalpel the content of the larva was then pressed and scraped out into the drop. The head and the

larval integument were transferred to the other drop. Cover slips were placed over the drops, pressed gently and the content www.selleckchem.com/products/AZD2281(Olaparib).html inspected for parasitoid eggs ( Jones, 1986) under 60X magnification (Wild Heerbrugg, 195672). The objectives of these experiments were to evaluate the oviposition behavior of T. rapae females when infective fungal propagules were present in the host patch in (a) a no-choice situation and in (b) a dual choice situation. Thirteen day old D. radicum larvae were inoculated with Triton-X 100 and treated as described in Section 2.3. After 24 h incubation 10 larvae were randomly selected and transferred to an experimental arena, where they were left to feed for 18 h. For the no-choice bioassay

the host patches were inoculated by pipetting either 1.5 ml 0.05% Triton-X 100 (Control), 1.5 ml M. brunneum 1 × 108 conidia ml−1 suspension, or 1.5 ml B. bassiana 1 × 108 conidia ml−1 suspension, to the vermiculite around the turnip piece. Two arenas of the same treatment were placed in the experimental box, and a female T. rapae introduced. The boxes were placed in a randomized block design, and the experiment was replicated on eight occasions with two blocks each time (n = 16). In the dual choice situation, each T. rapae female was offered the choice

between DOK2 two host patches where the vermiculite was inoculated with 1.5 ml Triton-X 100 (Control) or 1.5 ml of a 1 × 108 conidia ml−1 suspension of either M. brunneum or B. bassiana. The position of the treatments (left or right) within the box was randomized. The experiments were replicated on three occasions with six boxes per fungal isolate each time (n = 18). The objective of this experiment was to reveal whether ovipositing T. rapae females are able to discriminate between healthy and fungal infected hosts. A surplus of 13 day old D. radicum larvae were treated as described in Section 2.3, and inoculated with either; a suspension of 1 × 108 conidia ml−1 of M. brunneum, or 1 × 109 conidia ml−1 of B. bassiana, or 0.05% Triton-X 100 (Control). The previous dose–mortality bioassays of D. radicum revealed that at these concentrations all exposed D. radicum larvae could be expected to become infected (>LC90; Table 1). After 24 h incubation 10 larvae were randomly selected from each treatment and transferred to an experimental arena, and left to feed for 18 h.

, 1992) HI-6 is available both as a dichloride or dimethanesulfo

, 1992). HI-6 is available both as a dichloride or dimethanesulfonate salt. The dichloride form of HI-6 is moderately effective in vitro at reactivating GB-inhibited rat AChE (Esposito et al., 2014), whereas the dimethanesulfonate salt was shown to be superior in terms of both solubility in biocompatible vehicles and biodistribution (Kuca et al., 2007b). HI-6 historically is a potent in vitro reactivator of GD- and GF- but not GA-inhibited AChE (Lundy et al., 1992, Clement et al., 1992, Worek et al., MK-8776 clinical trial 2007 and Esposito et al., 2014). Some have even stated that HI-6, despite poor activity against GA, is as close to a broad-spectrum oxime as any (Soukup et al., 2013). In the

present study, HI-6 DMS at 146 μmol/kg was significantly effective in promoting survival against GA, GB, GF, and paraoxon, but did not possess as broad a spectrum of activity as did MMB4 DMS or HLö-7 DMS. At the TI dose level (245 μmol/kg) similar results were seen as compared to the equimolar treatment, except with paraoxon where the TI therapy was not effective. Obidoxime dichloride offered significant survival protection against GA, (nearly GB, p = 0.0515), VX, and each of the pesticide oxons, confirming historical data. In vitro tests showed that obidoxime was a relatively poor reactivator of rat GA/AChE and GF/AChE conjugates, was a moderate reactivator against GB, but performed

well against VX (Esposito et al., 2014). Obidoxime has exhibited ChE reactivation activity ADP ribosylation factor against the pesticides chlorpyrifos (Musilek et al., 2005), parathion, and oxydemeton-methyl GSK1120212 purchase (Thiermann et al., 1997). RS194B is a relatively new compound, the most effective among a class of uncharged N-substituted 2-hydroxyiminoacetamido alkylamine compounds tested in mice (Radić et al., 2012). However, at the equi-molar

to 2-PAM Cl level of 146 μmol/kg, a significant increase in survival was observed only against GB in the present study. However, significant survival was seen against GB and chlorpyrifos oxon at the TI dose level (281 μmol/kg). Since TMB-4 was lethal at 146 μmol/kg in atropinized guinea pigs in the present study, the treatment dose was reduced to 35 μmol/kg (20% of the IM LD50) for evaluations. TMB-4 at 35 μmol/kg significantly improved survival rates only against LD85 challenge doses of VX and paraoxon, but significant reactivation of blood AChE was observed only against VX, paraoxon, GB, and CPO. These observations are partially in agreement with those observed by others, where TMB-4 offered high reactivation of rat AChE inhibited by either GA, GB, or VX but not GF (Esposito et al., 2014). MINA was the only non-heterocyclic oxime tested in the present study. This oxime is also capable of diffusion across the BBB (Skovira et al., 2010). Here, protection by MINA alone at the equimolar dose did not reach statistical significance against all OPs tested.

Hence, managing Mediterranean fisheries is complicated by the pre

Hence, managing Mediterranean fisheries is complicated by the presence of a great number of different fishing fleets in the same shared fishing areas using a diverse array of fishing gears. The peculiarities of Mediterranean fisheries can be briefly summarized as: – high diversity in terms

of catch composition: the commercial catches are composed of more than 50 species (multispecies fishery); In this scenario (multispecific, multigear, small-scale fishery importance, high seasonal and spatial variability) partners agreed that a management system based on TFC is, in general, not suitable Galunisertib manufacturer for the management of Mediterranean resources since it is not feasible to assign Fishing Concessions

either by fleet segment, vessel, target species or fishing area. Establishing a maximum amount of fish that can be caught (Quota) is a common approach applied especially in the Northern countries Y-27632 of EU. In the Mediterranean Sea a management model similar to a quota-based TFC system is already applied with good results to some fishing activities targeting one or few species. For instance, in the Compartment of Ancona (Adriatic Sea, Italy) pelagic trawling targeting small pelagic species (mainly anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus) is regulated so that, each fishing unit (composed by two paired vessels associated to one fishing net, the so-called “pair pelagic trawling”), can catch a maximum of 500 boxes (approximately 4 ton) of anchovies per day. This system is however applied in most cases on a voluntary basis

by fishermen and it is mainly market driven [39], while usually there is not a biological justification. In fact at the moment, the main problem for anchovy fishing is not the state of resources but its value oxyclozanide on the market; in many cases the high quantities of anchovies that reach the market cause a strong decrease in prices. In the Mediterranean sea a management system similar to Individual Transferable Quotas (ITQs) is only applied for bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) management, even if an heterogeneous approach to quota management and subdivision among gears and vessels is commonly applied in the different countries. The International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT) assigns to each Mediterranean country the yearly quota (an inclusive quota is fixed for the EU Member States). The historical series of catches is the criteria used to fix the tuna quota (TAC) among 27 EU countries. Each country can freely determine how to catch its quota and how to subdivide this quota among vessel and fishing practice (longlining, purse seining, trapping, leisure fishing). In this context Regional Administrations are usually excluded from the decision making process.

Although many researchers assume the temperature regime to be a s

Although many researchers assume the temperature regime to be a sensitive marker for the testing of climate changes, other characteristics Lenvatinib cost such as the duration of the ‘biological summer’

(the period with temperatures > 10°C, Efremova & Palshin 2012) can be used as an important marker of climate change, because it determines the initial biomass growth rate and the reproduction rate (abundance) of aquatic organisms. The example of six lakes in Karelia from 1953 to 2009 shows that the duration of the ‘biological summer’ has increased by 12–23 days and that the trend of the prolongation of the ‘biological summer’ is positive (p < 0.05) ( Efremova & Palshin 2012). The majority of the lakes in East Fennoscandia are characterised by an increase in the ice-free period (Filatov SCH727965 molecular weight et al. 2012). Earlier ice-melting in Lake Onega can result in a shift of the spring bloom period of diatoms. The negative correlation between the ice-free period and plankton characteristics (Chl a and N phytoplankton) may be explained by the predominance of large-sized diatoms (Tabellaria fenestrata and Aulacoseira islandica) in the summer phytoplankton. Chl a in these species is lower than in other algae (diatoms). The negative correlations between NAO, AO, precipitation

and zoobenthos abundance and biomass testify that nutrient and organic matter loads from the catchment area can increase together with the increase of precipitation in years with a positive NAO. In turn, eutrophication Elongation factor 2 kinase phenomena (hypoxia, H2S production etc.) can reduce the numbers of sensitive species (relict amphipods) and, conversely, favour eurybiotic taxa (oligochaetes). Oxygen depletion and higher temperatures accelerate nutrient release processes at the sediment-water

interface (Søndergaard et al. 2003) and increase the stress on aquatic organisms (Weider and Lampert, 1985, Saeger et al., 2000 and Wilhelm and Adrian, 2007), resulting in a decrease in their abundance. Significant correlations between climate indices, physical parameters in Petrozavodsk Bay, Lake Onega, and some characteristics of its biota (phytoplankton, zoobenthos) were found in this research. We conclude that global climate primarily determines the regional hydrological variables of a lacustrine ecosystem and its productivity level, whereas biotic characteristics are a reflection principally of the variability in the water temperature and the ice-free period, both of which determine the duration of the ‘biological summer’ (WT > 10°C). At the same time, the responses of biological communities and whole ecosystems to climate variability are complex and often difficult to recognise, especially in the case of large ecosystems with a long period of water exchange. We cordially thank Professor Nikolai N. Filatov, Dr Natalia M. Kalinkina for the valuable discussion and also Mrs Y.