Procedeu-se

a análise estatística descritiva, com recurso

Procedeu-se

a análise estatística descritiva, com recurso ao SPSS® versão 17. Para comparação de grupos, foi usado o teste de Qui quadrado; consideraram-se significativos valores de p inferiores a 0,05. Os dados estatísticos gerais do serviço de gastrenterologia (número total de internamentos e taxa de mortalidade) foram fornecidos pelo serviço de estatística do hospital. Selecionaram-se para estudo 56 internamentos, correspondendo a 3,9% do total de internamentos do serviço de gastrenterologia no mesmo período. Dos 55 doentes abrangidos, 33 (60%) eram do sexo masculino, com idades compreendidas entre 41-100 anos (média de idades de 74,9 ± 13,8 anos). Os critérios de SIRS mais frequentes foram a taquicardia (71,4%) e a leucocitose (66,1%). As infeções das vias biliares constituíram o foco infecioso mais frequente, em 36 casos (64,3%), seguidas de outras infeções intra-abdominais Selleck Mitomycin C (17,9%), como é o caso da peritonite bacteriana espontânea (tabela 3). No que respeita à monitorização e avaliação de sinais de gravidade (tabela 4), verificou-se que em apenas 6 casos (10,7%) AZD2281 cell line foi registada pelo menos uma vez a totalidade dos parâmetros

considerados. O estado neurológico e os valores de pressão arterial foram avaliados em mais de 80% dos doentes e a oximetria de pulso e gasometria arterial com lactatos em cerca de 70%. Já a algaliação e o registo do débito urinário foram os mais deficitários, realizados em menos de um terço dos casos. Foi colocado um acesso venoso central no SU em 3 doentes, dos quais 2 apresentavam sinais de hipoperfusão; em nenhum deles foi documentado o valor de pressão venosa central. Em 27 casos (48,2%) existiam sinais de hipoperfusão, 3 (5,4%) destes preenchendo critérios de choque séptico. Quanto à instituição das medidas terapêuticas de suporte prioritárias (tabela 4), a fluidoterapia foi administrada em 66,1% dos doentes, mas a administração de oxigénio suplementar foi registada em apenas 35,7%. Relativamente à identificação do foco séptico e dos potenciais agentes microbiológicos implicados, foram colhidas amostras para hemoculturas nas 24 horas iniciais em 37 casos (66,1%). O tempo

para a primeira prescrição de antibiótico variou de 0,5-33 horas, com um valor médio de 10,4 ± 6,7 horas e mediano de 8,8 horas (tabela 4). Em apenas 15 casos a antibioterapia foi iniciada nas Interleukin-3 receptor primeiras 6 horas. Dois doentes iniciaram mesmo o antibiótico mais de 24 horas após a admissão hospitalar (fig. 1). O tempo médio de permanência no SU foi de 9,7 ± 6,5 horas, variando de menos de uma hora a 29,5 horas. Seis (10,7%) dos internamentos efetivaram-se na UCIGH. A demora média de internamento verificada para estes doentes foi de 12,8 ± 11,4 dias. A taxa de mortalidade intra-hospitalar foi de 30,4%, superior à taxa de mortalidade global do serviço no mesmo período (8,6%, p < 0,0001). O diagnóstico de sépsis constou nos registos clínicos em apenas 6 (10,7%) dos casos.

For each female, eggs were then gently poured into a Petri dish c

For each female, eggs were then gently poured into a Petri dish containing a small volume of RNAlater, and forceps cleaned with RNase AWAY (Molecular BioProducts, San Diego, CA) and sterile transfer pipettes were used to carefully transfer 3 sets of 25 eggs to RNase-free 1.5 mL tubes. The RNAlater was then removed by pipette, and the eggs were stored at − 80 °C until RNA extraction. Controlled/timed egg fertilizations were conducted as follows. Eggs were transferred from plastic collection beakers into 1.5 L graduated glass “fertilization beakers” by gentle pouring, and sperm (2 mL selleck compound sperm per 100 mL of eggs) was added using a plastic transfer pipette (note: each of the 15 females involved in the study

was represented by a separate 1.5 L fertilization beaker). The egg and sperm mixture was gently stirred using the pipette, 100 mL of UV-treated filtered seawater was added, and the mixture was again stirred. After incubating for 1 minute, 500 mL of UV-treated filtered seawater was added and the mixture incubated for an additional 5 minutes. Each fertilization beaker was then filled to 1.4 L with UV-treated filtered seawater, placed in a walk-in cold room at 6 °C, and left undisturbed until 7 hours post-fertilization (hpf) (~ 2-cell stage). Prior to the distribution of eggs from each female into incubation beakers at 7 hpf, a subsample of eggs was placed into a Petri

dish and photographed using a dissecting microscope and video camera. These images were transferred into ImageJ (http://imagej.nih.gov/ij), and the diameter of a number of eggs per female (approx. 15–30) was measured relative to a 2 mm GSK-3 inhibitor micrometer that was included in the image. At 7 hpf, ID-8 a sterile pipette was used to transfer approximately 0.25 mL of floating (fertilized) eggs from each fertilization beaker into each of three 1.5 mL RNase-free tubes. Seawater was removed by pipette, and the samples were flash-frozen

in liquid nitrogen and stored at − 80 °C until RNA extraction. In addition, sixty 600 mL beakers containing 500 mL of UV-treated filtered seawater were each stocked with ~ 1000 fertilized eggs (4 replicate beakers per female). Total percent fertilization (i.e. floating volume) was also determined at this time for each of the 1.5 L fertilization beakers. The number of eggs was determined by collecting 200 μL of eggs using a wide bore pipette, counting the eggs, and then extrapolating to the volume required for 1000 eggs; this was performed twice and averaged for each female. Replicate “incubation beakers” (4 per female) were randomly placed on the bench top of a walk-in cold room (~ 6 °C), whose fluorescent lights and reflective metal surfaces were covered with shade cloth and black garbage bags to achieve a light intensity range of 107–179 LUX at the top of the beakers. Water temperature was maintained at 6.2–6.4 °C until 100% hatch (i.e. for 17 days).

The authors would also like to thank Merijn de Bakker and Gerda L

The authors would also like to thank Merijn de Bakker and Gerda Lamers for technical assistance, Remco de Linsitinib Zwijger for help with imaging, Daisy van der Heijden and Senna van der Heijden for the Western blot and Hans Von den Hoff for his assistance with MMP zymography and supplying hrMMPs. “
“A lactating mother secretes about 200–300 mg/day of calcium into her breast milk [1]. This extra demand for calcium represents a considerable proportion of the calcium intake for many lactating women [2]. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) studies have demonstrated that during

the first 3–6 months of lactation, there are temporary decreases of bone mineral (reported as areal bone mineral density [BMDa] or bone area adjusted bone mineral content [BA-adj BMC]) at the total hip (–1% to −4%) and femoral neck (–2% to –7%) [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8] and [9]. The bone mineral changes during lactation are greater and more rapid than the average annual bone mineral loss of about 1–3% experienced

by postmenopausal women [2] and [10]. This release of calcium from the maternal skeleton may provide some of Olaparib mw the extra calcium required for breast milk production. There has been concern that this decrease in bone mineral could lead to reductions in the bone strength of lactating mothers and make them more prone to fracture in later life. Although uncommon, fractures during lactation are well documented [11] and [12]. However, in one of these studies some women were

known to have low bone density and/or other risk factors for osteoporosis [11]. In addition, retrospective studies investigating the relationship between parity and/or lactation history and fracture risk and bone mineral status are conflicting. Several studies show no relationship [13] and [14]. Other studies report an increased risk of lower bone mineral [15]. However, many studies report an improved bone status [16] or a reduced fracture risk as a result of breast feeding or high Mirabegron parity [17], [18], [19], [20] and [21]. Bone strength is related not only to bone mass but also to bone structural geometry. Bone structural geometry is the architectural arrangement of bone tissue around the bone axis along, or about which it is loaded. Hence, if there are compensating changes to bone structural geometry it is possible for bone mineral mass to decrease with no, or minimal compromise to mechanical strength [22] and [23]. It is now possible to use biomechanical engineering principles to investigate bone geometry from projected 2-D images of the hip generated from DXA scans using the Hip Structural Analysis (HSA) method [24] and [25]. This uses raw spatial and mineral mass DXA information from the proximal femur to compute structural geometrical variables at three specific sites: the narrow neck, intertrochanteric and proximal shaft regions.

1) Five of the stations (So1-5 m, So2-10 m, So3-20 m, So4-30 m,

1). Five of the stations (So1-5 m, So2-10 m, So3-20 m, So4-30 m, J23-40 m) were located on a depth gradient transect and one station (M2–10 m depth) was located in Puck Bay. The zooplankton material was collected using a closing-type Copenhagen net of 0.50 m inlet diameter and 100 μm mesh size, equipped with a flowmeter.

Qualitative and quantitative laboratory analyses were performed in accordance with the HELCOM guidelines included in the Combine manual Annex C-7 (www.helcom.fi), except for the nauplii, which were identified to species level. Adults of the genus Acartia were identified only to genus level, owing to the similarity between the three Acartia species, these are referred to as Acartia spp. Biomass was calculated from abundance with weight standards IDH inhibitor after Hernroth (1985); afterwards, obtained values were integrated over the whole depth layer. Finally, seasonal (Winter December–March, Spring

April–June, Summer July–September, Autumn October–December) biomass SB203580 mouse values were derived by averaging corresponding months (Table 1). Carbon was calculated as 5% of wet weight after Mullin (1969); this conversion rate is usually used for Baltic copepods although as showed by Tanskanen (1994) it may lead to underestimation of zooplankton biomass. With assumption of non-limiting food conditions, the production of the investigated species’ copepodite stages was calculated using Edmondson and Winberg’s equation (Edmondson and Winberg, 1971): equation(1) PCi=Ni×ΔWiDiwhere PCi represents daily potential production of stage i (wet weight), Ni is the abundance of the corresponding development stage i, Di is the development time of stage i (day−1) and ΔWi is the difference in wet weight of stage i. Di of developmental stages were computed using Belehrádek’s function ( Belehrádek, 1957): equation(2) Di=a(T−α)−bDi=a(T−α)−bwhere

a is 1288, 1466, 3044, and α is −10.5, −10.4, −13.9 for Acartia spp., T. longicornis and Pseudocalanus sp. copepodite stages, respectively, and b value is 2.05, all after McLaren (1978) and McLaren et al. (1989). T was the ambient temperature (°C) and was determined for each stage based on its WMD ( Dzierzbicka-Głowacka et ID-8 al., 2013). Estimates of zooplankton mortality were computed with the method described by Aksnes and Ohman (1996). We initially assumed that recruitment rate pi (ind. day−1) to stage i was constant over a time period corresponding to the duration of the stage αi (days). Furthermore duration of each stage was constant for every individual, and the mortality for the period αi can be expressed by a constant θi (true mortality rate of the stage i) (day−1). While estimating mortality we assumed that rate of stage i and i + 1(θ) was considered for a period equal to the corresponding duration of two consecutive stages (αi + αi+1).

This M

This R428 avenue of research is still in its infancy, and research is needed to resolve problems of the current assay, including interferences from other compounds in the complex sample matrix which may induce a non taste-receptor mediated response by the cells [67]. There is currently a dearth of information on the taste attributes of bioactive protein hydrolysates or peptides. Research applying sensomics mapping, instrumental taste sensing

or cell-based systems to the study of bioactive peptides could accelerate the acquisition of important knowledge in this field. Bioactive peptides and protein hydrolysates hold great promise as valuable functional ingredients

in healthy diets to fight the global epidemic of non-communicable Olaparib in vitro diseases. However, in order to realize this potential, several challenges must be addressed (Table 2). The high cost and multi-step nature of existing processes for bioactive peptide production implores the need to apply a systematic approach for identifying the best conditions to release ‘cryptides’ with target bioactivity from the parent protein source, and for developing innovative production and purification strategies to obtain peptide fractions with high potency and yield. Bioinformatics tools may be useful to guide the empirical approach and may also provide a better understanding at the molecular level of the peptide structure–activity relationship. Standardized methodology for analysis and robust clinical trials to evaluate efficacy and metabolic fate of the established products are of critical importance for quality assurance and justification of health claims. Finally, research must be conducted on the taste and other sensory quality attributes of bioactive peptides to ensure their successful adoption as functional

food ingredients that can lead to better health. 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase Papers of particular interest, published within the period of review, have been highlighted as: • of special interest Financial support in the form of a Discovery Grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC RGPIN 121822-11) is gratefully acknowledged. “
“Current Opinion in Food Science 2015, 1:xx–yy This review comes from a themed issue on Food chemistry and biochemistry Edited by Delia B. Rodriguez Amaya doi:10.1016/j.cofs.2014.09.003 S2214-7993/© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The human sense of smell is triggered by small, non-polar to medium polar molecules which dock onto receptor proteins of the olfactory epithelium. They signal freshness, quality and authenticity of a food, hence guiding our choice of food.

Filamentous cyanobacteria are able to fix nitrogen, which gives t

Filamentous cyanobacteria are able to fix nitrogen, which gives them a competitive advantage when compared to other phytoplankton, and they may therefore dominate the surface waters in summer, provided there is enough phosphorus available. In the head of the bay a local Urban Waste Water Treatment Plant (UWWTP) is situated that serves approximately 300,000 people and the main human impacts are caused by the UWWTP (30% of the total nitrogen input) along with agriculture and by private sewers [21]. The Himmerfjärden UWWTP started operating in 1974, and had efficient phosphorus removal from the beginning (about

96%), using Himmerfjärden bay as recipient. In 1998, the introduction of efficient nitrogen removal (up to about 85%) was introduced in the treatment plant [22]. The inner BGB324 chemical structure basins of Himmerfjärden

were shown to be potentially phosphorus limited, and may be regarded as ‘potentially eutrophic’, despite comparatively low nutrient loading relative to their volume [23]. However, there has been strong disagreement amongst Swedish marine scientist for many years if it is phosphorus or nitrogen that is limiting for the growth of filamentous cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea [24]. During 2007–2010, a large scale experiment was conducted by the Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University in collaboration with the operators of the Himmerfjärden Gefitinib concentration UWWTP (SYVAB). SYVAB provided the possibility for adaptive management by adjusting the level of nitrogen treatment. In this experiment, nitrogen was not treated for a period of two years (during 2007–2008),

and during 2009–2010, nitrogen treatment was operated, again, almost to its full capacity. This experiment was conducted in order to evaluate if the increased availability of nitrogen in the recipient may reduce the occurrence of blooms of filamentous cyanobacteria in the bay, i.e. by allowing other phytoplankton to compete with the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. The results of the full-scale nitrogen experiment are still under investigation. Inositol monophosphatase 1 The Himmerfjärden nitrogen study was performed in parallel to the SPICOSA project, and the regular stakeholder meetings provided a good opportunity for also recruiting local stakeholders to the SPICOSA project [21]. Fig. 2 shows three images over Himmerfjärden derived from satellite data with different spatial resolution: Landsat TM data (30 m resolution), MERIS full resolution data (300 m) and MERIS reduced resolution data (1.2 km). The comparison shows that considering the spatial resolution, Landsat TM is better suited to view this coastal area from space. However, it is not adapted for aquatic applications as it is designed as a terrestrial sensor, which means that it is not sensitive enough for detecting variations in the water-leaving radiance (the light leaving the water).

(2012) identifies that highest concentrations of total suspended

(2012) identifies that highest concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) were from mining, horticulture, and Sorafenib dryland cropping with highest median total nitrogen (TN) concentrations from horticulture, cotton and bananas. The transport and potential toxicity of pesticides from agricultural areas is a key concern for the ecosystem health of both freshwater environments and the GBR. Photosystem II inhibiting (PSII) herbicides are used in large quantities on agricultural lands adjoining the GBR and case studies presented in this Special Issue demonstrate the widespread presence

of pesticides, particularly PSII herbicides, in all systems, from the catchment to the GBR lagoon (Smith et al., 2012). The increase in agricultural land-use is one of the main sources of pressure on the GBR and improved land management practices play a key role for the long-term sustainability of the GBR. Webster et al. (2012) report on an agricultural practice change with positive outcomes for the GBR where adjustments in the rate of fertiliser application lead to significant reductions of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in the downstream water systems, with no significant difference in sugarcane yield. Changes in agricultural management to reduce pollutant loads are the focus of another Special Issue arising from the Conference on the Challenges in Environmental Science and Engineering; ‘Catchment to Reef

continuum: Minimising impacts

Selleckchem SP600125 of agriculture’ (Thorburn, 2012). Papers in that Special Issue assess the effectiveness of certain management practices, quantify paddock-scale transport processes, consider the significance of climate change for land practice management, as well as economic and policy aspects of reducing sediment, nitrogen and pesticide exports. One of the conclusions is that substantial (e.g., >20%) load reductions will be very difficult to achieve for most pollutants exported from the GBR catchment, with the exception of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (Thorburn and Wilkinson, 2012) which is very responsive to reduced N fertiliser application Rebamipide in croplands (Webster et al., 2012; Biggs et al., 2012). The best possible quantification of pollutant loads exported from coastal catchments is essential for natural resource management. For example, Reef Plan, a joint initiative by the Australian Government and the Queensland Government, stipulates that a 20% reduction in sediment loads is required by 2020 to halt and reverse the decline of water quality in the inshore GBR lagoon. Accurate reporting of loads allows better informed land management through prioritisation of actions based on the pollutant type. The improved assessment of the true load of materials to the GBR lagoon is also an important contribution to the monitoring and reporting of progress towards Reef Plan and associated load targets (described in Carroll et al., 2012).

parahaemolyticus O3:K6 strain PMA1 6 This research is supported

parahaemolyticus O3:K6 strain PMA1.6. This research is supported Crizotinib by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF grant Nos. 0312039 and 0315942 and VibrioNet, BMBF grant 01KI1015A). “
“Bothrops bilineata ( (Wied-Neuwied, 1825) is an arboreal species which has a known distribution in the Amazon Forest, in some areas of the Atlantic Forests ( Campbell and Lamar, 2004) and in the northeastern part of the state of Minas Gerais ( Feio and Caramaschi, 2002 and Bernarde et al., 2011). Recently, Carrasco et al. (2012) through morphology, phylogeny and

taxonomy studies has suggested an arrangement of the Bothrops genus and also has recognized as sister clade synonymizing Bothriopsis, Bothropoides and Rhinocerophis. It is important to note that there are few studies on the epidemiological and clinical aspects of envenomation by B. bilineata ( Borges et al., 1999, Smalligan et al., 2004 and Waldez and Vogt, 2009). And experimentally B. bilineata venom induces neuromuscular activity in nerve-muscle preparations isolated from vertebrates ( Rodrigues-Simioni et al., 2011). In addition, B. bilineata venom induces a significant leukocyte accumulation at

the site of tissue damage characterized by neutrophil migration BKM120 ( Porto et al., 2007). However, the activation state of these cells is still unclear. Neutrophils, also named polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN), represent the majority of the leukocytes

in peripheral blood. They have very short lifespans, spending only 8–12 h in circulation (Summers et al., 2010). However, various stimuli, such as cytokines and bacterial products were shown to prolong their survival (Colotta et al., 1992). They are considered the first line of defense in the organism due to their quick migration into infected tissue thus providing an acute inflammatory response (Nathan, 2006). At the inflammation site, neutrophils perform host defense functions such as phagocytosis, release of proteolytic Interleukin-2 receptor enzymes, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and synthesis of a number of inflammatory mediators including cytokines and lipid mediators (Cassatella, 1995, Cassatella, 1999, Nathan, 2006 and Timár et al., 2013). In addition to these well-known neutrophil functions, the literature documents the discovery of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) also capable of eliminating microorganisms in the extracellular space (Brinkmann et al., 2004). These extracellular vesicles represent a form of intercellular communication carried out by lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids (Timár et al., 2013). So, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of B. bilineata venom (BbV) on the functionality of human neutrophils such as cytokine production (IL-6 and IL-8) as well as that of PGE2, hydrogen peroxide and release of NETs.

However, once the malignant cell from squamous cell carcinoma bec

However, once the malignant cell from squamous cell carcinoma became much more predominant what was observed along the 9th day of cell culture, there had been an increase of IL-4 levels which were maintained until the 16th day. Otherwise, the IL-10 levels were maintained continuously during the cell co-culture whereas when isolated, the myoepithelial cells produced higher levels of IL-10 than the malignant cells, at the beginning of the

experiment but at the end, IL-10 release levels were increased in the malignant cells. In gland tumours, especially in breast cancer, the myoepithelial cell is considerate an important candidate for regulating the transition of in situ carcinoma to invasive cancer. 2 This suppressor phenotype ability is associated with the Erlotinib chemical structure Epigenetics inhibitor production and secretion of extracellular matrix proteins, protease inhibitors, and various growth factors. 26 In previous study, we have demonstrated that the benign myoepithelial cells from pleomorphic adenoma stimulated by conditioned medium from squamous cells carcinoma cells medium, underwent phenotypic alteration represented by an increased in growth factors contents.23 and 24 In this regard, in this study we attempted to simulate an in vitro model of an in situ arrangement, where neoplastic cells of oral squamous cell carcinoma were surrounded by benign myoepithelial cells from pleomorphic adenoma in order to correlate the cancer cell

growth with the releasing of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 associated with the immune response. The present results demonstrated that, in an in vitro condition, the myoepithelial cells were not able to suppress the tumour cells proliferation. After 16 days of cell culture, no in situ-like area was observed and there was a predominance of malignant cell from squamous cell carcinoma. Previous report, considering cell competition, has shown that slowly proliferating cells

undergo apoptosis when they are surrounded by fast proliferating cells. 27 However, the difference in cell growth speed alone does not always trigger cancer cell competition. 28 Tumour cells produce a variety of inflammatory mediators including cytokines and growth factors that participate 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase in the formation of an important microenvironment that promote tumour progression and dissemination.29 This tumour microenvironment is not only composed by malignant tumour and stromal cells but also by infiltrating inflammatory cells that in response to tumour signals may fail to block tumour progression, and contribute to tumour growth.30 In this present model, where the microenvironment of the tumour was composed only by myoepithelial cells without the inflammatory cells, we have observed that IL-6 amounts were higher released when compared with IL-4 and IL-10, in all studied periods. Interestingly, the peak of IL-6 release fits with the predominance of malignant cells in the culture. Two hypotheses may be formulated for the IL-6 levels.

These absorbance ratios correspond roughly to the range of CR abs

These absorbance ratios correspond roughly to the range of CR absorbance ratios (R) encountered in oceanic measurements. The absorbance

Alectinib ic50 measurements used to determine the ratios were well within the linear-response characteristics of the Cary 400 spectrophotometer. The temperature and salinity ranges were 278.13 ≤ T ≤ 308.27 K and 20 ≤ S ≤ 40. Initial estimates for the e1 term in Eq.  (2) were obtained by determining the e1 molar absorptivity ratio at a pH where the HI− form of the dye is dominant. Iterative calculations are necessary to account for absorbance contributions at 433 nm and 573 nm from the H2I and I2 − forms of the dye. The overlapping absorbance spectra of H2I, HI− and I2 − are shown in Fig. 1. A speciation model for T = 298.15 K and S = 35 was constructed using the K1 determined as described in Section 2.7 and the K2 reported by Byrne and Breland (1989). At a pH of 4.5, HI− is near

99.91% of the total CR concentration; the fractions of H2I and I2 − are 0.045% and 0.046%. Requisite e1 Pexidartinib molecular weight absorbance data (573A/433A) were determined with a 0.02 m acetate buffer solution at ionic strength of 0.7 m NaCl. No salinity dependence was observed for the very small e1 term. During preparation of the acetate/acetic acid buffer solution, pHf (free scale) was monitored with a ROSS combination electrode that had been calibrated on the free hydrogen ion scale by titrating a 0.7 m NaCl solution with standard HCl. Because the HI− absorbance signal includes contributions from the H2I and I2 − forms of the dye, the following equation was used to account for these contributions (see also derivation of Liu et al., 2011): equation(6) e1=εHI−573εHI−433=AHI−573/sHI−AHI−433/sHI−=AT573−AH2I573−AI2−573AT433−AH2I433−AI2−433where λεHI is the molar absorptivity at a given wavelength (λ) for the HI− form of the indicator, λAx is the absorbance at wavelength λ of total (T) indicator (all forms) or of individual indicator forms (H2I, HI−, or I2 −), s is the cell pathlength, and [HI−] is the concentration of the HI− form.

Expressing the absorbance terms in Eq. (6) in terms of molar absorptivities and total CR concentrations (IT) via K1 and K2, e1 can be written as follows: Janus kinase (JAK) equation(7) e1=AT573−εH2I573ITsH+2K1K21+H+K2+H+2K1K2−1−εI2−573ITs1+H+K2+H+2K1K2−1AT433−εH2I433ITsH+2K1K21+H+K2+H+2K1K2−1−εI2−433ITs1+H+K2+H+2K1K2−1 To obtain the K2 value required in this calculation, initial e1 estimates were used to obtain initial K2T estimates by solving Eq.  (2) for − log (K2Te2). The e2 term, required to calculate K2T from − log(K2Te2), was calculated as a function of temperature by using the HI− absorbance at λ = 433 nm in the solution used to determine e1 (i.e., acetate buffer of pH = 4.5 and 0.7 m ionic strength) and the absorbance at λ = 573 nm in the solution used to determine e3/e2 (i.e., modified synthetic seawater of pH = 12 and 0.7 m ionic strength).